"Research concerning 3D constructs of biological tissues has made enormous progress over the past twenty years. The ultimate aim is to create in vitro models that mimic, at least in part, morphology and function of biological tissues, leading to future applications ranging from clinical modeling to clinical transplants.
Despite the progress in obtaining various types of constructs (organoids and 3D aggregates, 3D bioprinted constructs, cultures and co-cultures of cells seeded in various types of 3D scaffolds and matrices, currently their applications are extremely limited.
One of the fundamental factors in the progress of this field is to be able to reproduce a cellular microenvironment and tissue culture conditions as close as possible to the physiological conditions, in order to favor construct maturation both from a morphological and functional point of view. It is known that not only biochemical cues are required, but also mechanoregulation of cell behavior, which also depends on extracellular matrix properties
The possibility of preparing and culturing tissue explants and tissue constructs in Space could be an important advancement for the management of serious pathological conditions in future deep space exploration missions. Unloading conditions favor cell aggregation, but they can alter main cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion/migration, energy metabolism and production of extracellular matrix molecules. In particular, mechanoregulation is expected to change and matrix properties could be different. Therefore, current knowledge on microenvironment properties and culture conditions promoting tissue construct maturation and survival may not be applicable to tissue culturing in Space. In-depth studies are needed to determine the requirements for the culture of tissue constructs in space and to develop the necessary facilities and techniques."