Introduction: 2D pnictogens, including bismuthene, have recently emerged as new members of the ever-increasing 2D family thanks to their exceptional electronic, topological, thermoelectronic, and optical properties.
Here we present a 2D bismuthene synthesized from the 3D bulk bismuth involving a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method to improve its magnetic properties specifically.
Envisaging the future biomedical applications and considering the central importance of this material as a possible theranostic agent for photothermal and photodynamic therapy of cancer, the bio- and immune-compatibility of 2D bismuthene remains a fundamental step of its clinical translation.
Methods: Here we applied our experience gained on 2D nanomaterials in this context1–3 to evaluate the impact of 2D bismuthene on whole blood and immune cells by means of flow cytometry, complete blood counts, and multiplex cytokine analysis.
Results: 2D bismuthene immune profiling on whole blood and functional studies with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed the excellent bio and immune compatibility of the material, as well as the ability to modulate the immune response with anti-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, the bismuthene did not boost the expression of activation markers on T cells and monocytes, but it actually reduced them. A significant decrease in the expression levels of CD69 and CD25 was observed for T cells and monocytes, giving proof of a powerful CD25 and CD69 modulation on both immune cell types. The cytokines found expressed, such as IL4, IL5, IL6, TNFα, and IFNγ, resulted in a non-significant difference with respect to the untreated sample.
Conclusions: Taken together, these results describe bismuthene as a highly biocompatible 2D nanomaterial able to modulate the immune response with anti-inflammatory properties, a crucial aspect for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer nanotherapeutics4–6. As the link between cancer and inflammation is investigated, nanoscientists can engineer targeted nanomaterials to efficiently combat the tumor-associated inflammation and cancer carcinogenesis, dissemination, and metastasis.
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2. Molinaro, R., et al., Curr Med Chem 25 34, 4208–4223. (2018)
3. Orecchioni, M., et al., Adv Drug Deliv Rev 105 Pt B , 163–175. (2016)
4. Russier, J., et al., Angewandte Chemie International Edition 56 11, 3014–3019. (2017)
5. Unal, M.A., et al., Nano Today 38, 101136. (2021)
6. Vendramini-Costa, D.B., et al., Curr Pharm Des 18 26 , 3831–3852. (2012).