Various 3D Printing and Bioprinting approaches have proven useful for tissue engineering applications. The achievable spatial resolution of the most widespread technologies, such as for example extrusion, is usually in the range of hundreds of micrometers, limited by the intrinsic attributes of these methods. However, light-based technologies and in particular multiphoton lithography (MPL) can produce features much smaller than a single mammalian cell . Among other things, it has recently enabled realization of highly porous biodegradable microscaffolds capable of hosting individual cell spheroids . The resulting tissue units can be used for bottom-up self-assembly of larger tissue constructs with very high initial cell density . Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated that it is possible to embed living cells using MPL of photosensitive hydrogels, placing this technology in the domain of high-definition bioprinting, as well as fabrication of microstructures directly inside microfluidic devices .
MPL opens exciting perspectives for the engineering of advanced microscaffolds and 3D biomimetic cell culture matrices. In this contribution, our recent progress on MPL development will be presented. Current state of the art, challenges and future perspectives will be discussed.
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