"INTRODUCTION: Burn injuries propound copious challenges to clinical care and leaves the patient traumatized for years with scars. Even so, scarring walls off foreign bodies and seals injured tissue, it curb the movement and cede the cosmetic appearance of the skin. This wound healing defect is coupled with impaired cytokine expression. Upon tissue damage, the injured skin residents release cytokines into the wound bed to attract immune cells. Dysregulation in cytokine expression dramatically ends in defective wound matrix. Cytokines exerts inflammatory response to enhance wound healing. On the contrary, prolonged episodes of inflammation deposits excessive dermal matrix as scars. Thereupon, designing the construct to act concurrently by modulating the expressions of inflammatory cytokines is inevitable. An art of tuning the scar derma would be of a great value in post-traumatic wound healing. Thus far, clinically effective therapy for scar-less burns remains unmet and highly desirable goal. The fabricated nano-construct administered with biological agents exerts external stimuli to facilitate skin regeneration with minimal scarring.
METHODOLOGY: Polymers of oxyethylene and hydroxyalkanoates were electrospun with preloaded bioactive compound to obtain the multi-component nanofibrous matrix. The efficiency was investigated for the modulation in the expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines specific to dermal scars in rat. The tissue lysates were taken from burned lesions of the rat and quantified for the cytokine expressions. A glass slide was spotted with targeted antibody for all inflammatory mediators. The sample diluents were diluted with the reference standard solution and the protein concentration matched tissue lysates. The experiment was performed and quantified with the median of the measured intensities to draw the final cytokine concentration (pg/ml).
RESULTS: In line, we have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 with the autocrine effect down-regulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine burst in the experimental group compared to the controls by displaying the diminished intensity of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8. The key growth factor TGFbeta-3 is at its peak which was contradicted to the level of TGF-beta-1 that aids in dense collagen turnover. The EGF was up-regulated with the activation of epidermal cells. The potent angiogenic factor VEGF, exhibited a moderate intensity in all treated groups.
CONCLUSION: Expanding knowledge in bio-materials and connective tissue research has resulted in the development of novel materials for variety of pathological conditions. The extremely complex phenomenon of burn wound healing involves a number of well orchestrated events. Burns attracts a high interest exploration in the field of medicine due to the physiological note of the skin. To date, none of the medicaments are as favorable as surgery in ameliorating the survival impacts in major burns. Here, the developed in-situ network of nano-construct aids physical guidance that exactly mimics the natural extracellular matrix for the guided tissue regeneration with lesser possibility of excessive scars. This useful cost effective graft material pave the way to meet the requirements of the needy patients belong to the lower strata of the socio-economy where the expenditure towards is difficult to impossible.
REFERENCE: 1. Jovanovic J. et al., Glia 68, 574-588 (2020)."