XVI International Numismatic Congress

Europe/Warsaw
University of Warsaw

University of Warsaw

Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28 Warsaw
Description

Welcome to the INC 2022

The International Congress, which takes place every six years, represents the world renowned event in the field of Numismatics. It is attended by a great number of people and attracts scholars, curators of coin collections, collectors and auction houses from the five Continents. The Congress forms a part of the politics for the promotion, conservation, valorization and fruition of the material and immaterial Cultural Heritage.
 
It is organized under the auspices of the International Numismatic Council, founded in 1927 to facilitate cooperation between scholars and between institutions in the field of numismatics and related disciplines. In the past the venues have been Paris, Rome, New York – Washington, Bern, London, Bruxelles, Berlin, Madrid, Glasgow and Taormina. The International Numismatic Congress is the occasion to reflect on the area of Numismatics, its methods, its advances and also the problems that it faces. It is therefore a unique opportunity for curators, historians, archaeologists, professional experts, collectors and all participants to meet one another and to share their passion to make fruitful contacts, and to initiate common projects.

Contact
    • Opening Session Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      • 3:00 PM
        Opening, welcome
      • 3:45 PM
        Chopin recital
      • 1
        The Coin Finds from the Antioch Excavations Revisited
        Speaker: Alan Stahl (Princeton University)
    • 6:00 PM
      Opening of the exhibitions "Coin Cabinets of the University of Warsaw", "Thesaurus Polonicus: Numismatic Rarities in the Polish Collections" and "History of Numismatic Milieu in Poland" (University Central Campus) University Central Campus

      University Central Campus

    • 8:00 PM
      Welcome reception at the Royal Castle sponsored by Künker Royal Castle - Kubicki Arcade

      Royal Castle - Kubicki Arcade

      Reception will be held in Kubicki Arcade
      Entrance from Grodzka street:
      https://goo.gl/maps/NGewKtRi9d4VC23w7

    • RT 1 - NUMISMATICS IN A DIGITAL WORLD Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Andrew Meadows

      This round table will offer a brief survey of the ways in which new technologies have transformed the way in which we approach the discipline of numismatics and will seek to engage the audience in discussion of the potential to ask new questions of our evidence and organise it in new ways.
      One axis of discussion will be provided by the different types of technological advance we have seen in the last few years:
      -Metadata: Knowledge Organisation Systems, International Authority Files, Linked Open Data
      -Artificial Intelligence: Natural Language Processing

      What can these approaches offer us severally, or in concert?

      A second axis will approach the question from ways in which we work with numismatic material:
      -Collection Management and Cataloguing
      -Knowledge Organisation: Corpora and Iconography
      -Archaeological contexts: Finds and Hoards

      It is hoped that the session will also serve as the introduction to a number of more specialised paper sessions to follow in the Congress Programme.

      Broader Aims
      This roundtable is intended to form a sequel to previous, similar sessions held at the Congresses in Madrid, Glasgow and Messina. We intend it to serve as an ‘introduction’ to a series of paper sessions that are being proposed by various members of the Nomisma community.

      List of panelists:
      Ethan Gruber
      Karsten Tolle, David Wigg Wolf
      Ulrike Peter
      Frédérique Duyrat, Julien Olivier
      Bernhard Weisser
      Pere Pau Ripollès
      Jerome Mairat
      Clare Rowan
      Charles Doyen
      Andrew Meadows

      Convener: Andrew Meadows (New College, Oxford)
      • 2
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Ethan Gruber (American Numismatic Society)
      • 3
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speakers: David Wigg-Wolf (Römisch-Germansiche Kommission), Karsten Tolle (Goethe Universität Frankfurt/ Main)
      • 4
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Der Wissenschaften)
      • 5
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speakers: Frédérique Duyrat (Bibliothèque Nationale de France), Julien Olivier (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
      • 6
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Bernhard Weisser (Münzkabinett Berlin)
    • S01. GREECE 1. GENERAL: GREECE 1. GENERAL Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
      • 7
        Coinage and construction

        To understand the early stages of coinage I study the relation between building activities and the origins of minting. Already in 2000 Kenneth Sheedy concluded that there was a link between Parian coin production and building activities of the Parians. Was Paros an exception or was there a structural link between public building and coinage? To answer that question, the investigations conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre are invaluable. In the synthesis publication An inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Hansen and Nielsen 2004), a wealth of information about all 1,035 identified poleis was brought together. With these rich data I test whether there is a connection between minting and several types of buildings (city walls, political architecture and other public buildings including temples). My final aim is to demonstrate that coinage was used as a solution to tackle developments that took place in the late Greek archaic period.

        Speaker: John Mooring (PhD Candidate Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Associated PhD Student of OIKOS, the National Research School in Classical Studies in the Netherlands )
      • 8
        The search for ancient silver mines

        Many mines had been in use over several millennia but most ancient workings have been damaged and jumbled by the more recent extraction phases and have become exceedingly difficult to identify and date. For silver mines, isotopes offer a unique opportunity to resolve this conundrum. Over 95% of the 109Ag/107Ag ratios measured in silver coins from different origins, such as Ancient Greece and Iberia, Spanish Americas, medieval and pre-modern Europe, fall in a narrow ±0.1 per mill range, whereas the range for potential ores is more than an order of magnitude broader. Galena ores with high Ag, Sb, and As contents and 109Ag/107Ag ratios in the coinage range represent acceptable sources of bullion and, with some exceptions, make it safe to disregard other ore districts. This approach provides results consistent with literature records describing mines from Ancient Greece and Iberia.

        Speakers: Francis Albarède (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon), Janne Blichert-Toft (CNRS), Jean Milot, Katrin Westner, Markos Vaxevanopoulos (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon)
      • 9
        Ancient Greek Coin Hoards (550 -350 BC). Delving into the acquisitions of the Numismatic Museum, Greece.

        A significant number of coin hoards dated to the period 550-350 BC is kept at the Hellenic Numismatic Museum, attesting the long history of the city-states’ consolidation. These hoards are of a major importance since most of them were found in an archaeological context or at least, their findspot and conditions are known in a certain degree.
        The aim of this paper is to present this material, published or unpublished, from a new perspective to add, wherever possible, to our knowledge of the regional circulation pattern and the numismatic history of the issuing authorities.

        Speaker: George Kakavas (Numismatic Museum, Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports )
    • S21. ANTIQUITY 1. SYRIA & ASIA: 21. ANTIQUITY 1. SYRIA & ASIA Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Convener: Klaus Vondrovec (Kunsthitorisches Museum)
      • 10
        Parthian Occupation in Syria: Numismatic Evidence from Antioch and Apamea

        This paper will discuss a set of numismatic evidence belonging to the brief Parthian occupation of Syria (51 BC and 41-40 BC). Previous studies have not sufficiently considered the attribution of the tetradrachm (S.44.1) with regard to its own historical context, seeking to determine whether this coin type belongs to either Orodes II (Gardner 1877, Wroth 1903, Sellwood 1980) or prince Pacorus (Simonetta 1978). This paper will suggest these tetradrachms were issued neither in 51 BC nor in 40 BC, and not in Antioch but in Seleucia by Orodes II. I will next show that the temporary Parthian occupation in Antioch could be documented by a series of rare “city issues” unearthed during the Antioch excavations bearing the Seleucid dating of BOΣ-- similar to the one on Apamea’s bronze issues – and a Parthian terracotta figure found in the same context as these Parthian bronze coins.

        Speaker: Razieh Taasob (Charles University)
      • 11
        The coinage of the kings Attambelos IV and V of Characene (A.D. 54/5 – 73/4).

        The paper provides an up-to-date status of the research on the coinage of the Characenian kings Attambelos IV (A.D. 54/5 – 64/5) and Attambelos V (A.D. 64/5 – 73/4) in Mesene (southern Iraq). While most researchers are familiar with the bronze tetradrachms of Attambelos IV and V, this paper covers also the rare bronze drachms and the small change in lead of Attambelos IV as well as the Arabian imitations that were found. There are also new insights regarding the dates used on the coins and the countermarks on the tetradrachms.

        Speaker: Patrick Pasmans (Royal Numismatic Society of Belgium )
      • 12
        Graeco-Bactrian gold: Metal analysis of the coins of the Bibliothèque nationale de France using LA-ICP-MS

        Although they account for only a small part of the coinage struck by the Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kings, gold coins have played an important role in historical reconstructions of the period, not least the unique 20 stater coin of Eucratides I (apparently the largest precious metal coin produced in Antiquity) and the octadrachm of Euthydemus I. Both these unique objects have recently been the subject of LA-ICP-MS analysis along with all the other gold coins of the Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms in the collection of the Bibliothèque nationale de France. The results of this analysis will be presented in this paper with a comparison of previous analyses of Hellenistic, and Kushan gold, allowing important conclusions about the stock of metal used in these kingdoms and our understanding of their history.

        Speakers: Julien Olivier (Bibliothèque nationale de France), Maryse Blet-Lemarquand (IRAMAT, CNRS-univ. Orléans), Simon Glenn (Ashmolean Museum)
    • S35. ROME 1. REPUBLIC AND EARLY EMPIRE: ROME 1. REPUBLIC AND EARLY EMPIRE Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Liv Mariah Yarrow (Brooklyn College, CUNY)
      • 13
        [⊝ not streamed] Ships on republican denarii from the late 2nd century BC. Family history and current events

        Towards the end of the 2nd century BC the quaestor Q. Lutatius Cerco (RRC 305) and two moneyers of the gens Fonteia (RRC 290; RRC 307) minted denarii with a ship on each reverse. The images of coins of the latter two in particular differ in several details, which due to their faulty and inadequate descriptions hinder interpretation. On the one hand, the images of the ships on the Fonteian denarii have been associated with alleged naval exploits of the ancestor P. Fonteius Capito, praetor in Sardinia 169 (e.g. Grueber). On the other hand, taking into account the depiction of Dioscuri (?) on the obverses, they have been linked with Telegonos who, as a founder of Tusculum, from which the gens Fonteia originated, had come to Italy by sea (e. g. Crawford). These two lines of interpretation will be revisited. It is also worth asking whether current events and debates are indeed reflected by images on coins.

        Speaker: Wilhelm Hollstein (Münzkabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden )
      • 14
        From the Coin Up: Roman Imperialism and the Numismatic Evidence

        Analysis of the coinage of Narbo Martius in southern Gaul sheds more detailed light on Roman expansion into the western Mediterranean compared with literary accounts of the period. The Romans founded Narbo Martius as the first Roman colony outside of Italy in 118 BCE, and its coinage, in startling iconography, depicts a triumphant Gallic warrior riding a biga and carrying a carnyx and a Gallic shield. The Romans clearly hoped with this coinage to engage the newly-subdued Gauls with a combination of intimidation and the economic incentives of increased trade and prosperity, a novel tactic in Rome’s treatment of the Gauls. That this strategy was ultimately unsuccessful is seen in ongoing conflicts and Caesar’s final defeat of the Gauls; later coinage depicting Gauls returns to a conventional iconography of conquest. The coinage of Narbo Martius, however, illuminates a pivotal period in Roman imperial strategy that is otherwise lost to history.

        Speaker: Marsha McCoy (Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX)
      • 15
        The representation of Sicily on Roman coinage from the Republic to Augustus

        Sicily has been the focus of numerous representations on Roman coins, from the early Republican coinage to the Augustan period. This contribution offers a comprehensive and up-to-date numismatic study of the main gold and silver issues which refer to the first province of Rome. The iconographic analysis, the study of the circulation of coins and the quantification of each series adds to our knowledge of the evolution of the image of Sicily over nearly three centuries; drawing attention to similarities and echoes between the different series; improving our understanding of the place occupied by this province in the successive power struggles which punctuated Roman political life.

        Speaker: Manon Larue (IRAMAT-CEB / Université d'Orléans )
      • 16
        Minting in the middle ground: counterfeited Roman coins in the Lemanic Arc (60-20 BCE)

        This paper seeks to bring together the evidence for three different case studies which document the counterfeiting of Roman silver coins in Southwestern Switzerland, from the Caesarean conquest to the early Augustan period. While patchy and heterogeneous in nature, the available evidence, in the form of manufacturing tools and end products, including a deposit of plated coins from Genève, makes it possible to identify a regional trend in the irregular monetary activities. Of particular interest in this regard is the question of the Roman military presence as a factor stimulating monetary accommodation.

        Speaker: Charles Parisot-Sillon (IRAMAT-CEB (CNRS & University of Orleans) )
    • S49. ROME 15. FINDS AND CIRCULATION 2 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Markus Peter (Augusta Raurica / Universität Bern / Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds)
      • 17
        The Antonine Denarii from Mesopotamia

        During Lucius Verus’ Parthian War (AD 164-7), a certain mint (or mints) in Osrhoene produced a series of denarii to pay Roman troops. The identity of these mint cities has been a matter of speculation, with some such as Hill (1922) attributing them to “uncertain mints”, while Babelon (1893) assigned one group with the reverse legend “ΒACIΛEYC MANNOC ΦIΛOPWMAIOC” to Edessa and those with the reverse legend “YΠEP NIKHC PΩMAIΩN” to Carrhae. Now more than 180 specimens are known, which is an opportunity for a more systematic reassessment. In this paper I provide the current state of my research with an overview of our evidence and a summary of the different types and their distribution. I relate die and production patterns, and conclude with metallurgical analysis. Laying out this evidence, we can more conclusively understand the purpose of the coins and perhaps identify their mints.

        Speaker: Edward Dandrow (University of Central Florida )
      • 18
        Coins finds from the insulae 3, 13 and 15 in Aventicum/Avenches (Switzerland)

        This paper will deal with coins found in three insulae of Aventicum/Avenches (CH), capital of the Helvetii during the Roman period. Two recently excavated insulae (3 and 15) have provided testimony of houses constructed soon after the integration into the Roman Empire. Insula 13 hosted two luxurious houses, probably properties of high ranked personages. The archaeological context of the coin finds and their contribution to the chronology of different insulae will be discussed. Next to considering coin circulation, the provenance of the coins in different domestic structures will be analysed in greater detail and, where possible, their relation to other archaeological objects. As regards stratigraphy, we will consider in which type of archaeological layers (construction/occupation/destruction) coins occur, and what it means for their interpretation.

        Speaker: Isabella Liggi Asperoni (Site et Musée romains Avenches )
      • 19
        Foundation deposits in Northern and Eastern Gaul: what possible contexts?

        While foundationdeposits over very diverse periods and regions are well-known to both archaeologists and numismatists nevertheless these are often not noted in scientific literature or archaeological reports. Indeed, only the most obvious and best-documented cases are generally considered as foundation deposits. Consequently, studies on this subject have almost exclusively tended to address exceptional or obvious deposits which are easily demonstrated by the presence of several currencies together, or by the specific identification of a monument or by the repeated action And yet, less obvious contexts may also be expected to yield a foundation deposit.

        Speaker: Ludovic Trommenschlager (Département Monnaies, médailles et antiques Bnf )
      • 20
        The monetization of the rural countryside in the German Rhineland

        My research is based on recently collected but not yet published data on coin finds from the rural hinterland of the German part of the Lower Rhine limes, i.e. from the villa landscape in the loess area. The monetization of this area has not been studied yet, as numismatic research is focused on the forts and urban centres on the Rhine. The composition of the data is unique, since it includes Celtic and Roman coins from amateur metal detectorist finds, excavations and local museum collections.
        This paper uses this data to address questions concerning the spread and development of coin use from the early Roman period up to the 5th century. Of special interest are spatial concentrations and differences in chronological and denominational patterns displayed by different types of rural settlements (vici, villae rusticae, rural sanctuaries). For this purpose, the techniques developed in applied numismatics have been used.

        Speaker: Rahel Otte (Goethe-Universität Frankfurt a. M)
    • S64. MIDDLE AGES 2. MONETISATION IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE. FORMS, PROCESSES AND TENDENCIES FROM THE 8TH TO THE 13TH CENTURY Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Org. Johannes Hartner, Rory Naismith; chair: Svein Gullbekk and Rory Naismith

      In recent years there has been an increased scientific interest in research on monetisation processes and the related beginning of coinage economies in various European regions during the Middle Ages. These more recent research approaches are by no means limited to the subjects of numismatics and monetary history but draw important impulses from the economic, social and cultural-historical areas as well as from archaeology and financial history.
      Meanwhile the term "Monetisation" appears to be almost too abstract to describe the actual monetary processes, structures and dimensions that underlie these complex developments - only ostensibly monetary, but also social and economic. There is a lack of theoretical concepts and general definitions that can only be achieved through interdisciplinary and comparative approaches and discourses.
      For this reason, we would like to submit two sessions with four speakers each, to promote the postulated "monetisation" in large parts of Europe (Scandinavia, Poland, France, Austria / southern Germany) from the 8th to the 13th century, to grasp the content and to define various forms of expression of these processes. Individual detailed studies will be presented and controversially discussed within this platform. The resulting comparison is expected to lead to theoretical and generally valid conclusions about medieval monetisation processes (factors, conditions and definitions).
      This session is closely related to the one submitted by Professor S.H. Gullbekk (Oslo) and Professor J.A. Risvaag (Trondheim), which also lists eight papers on the topic of medieval monetarisation, with a focus on the Scandinavian region. These two sessions have been coordinated with each other.

      Convener: Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 21
        Who used silver money in which markets? Some reflections on hybrid economic forms in 12th- and early 13th-century Piast Poland

        The key to understanding the level of monetary use is to reconstruct the quality of the division of labour and the accumulation of competence. The question of the degree of monetarisation of local markets appears to be of central importance. What significance did the markets play? Who generated the demand for goods and services that went beyond the usual compulsory fiscal levies and labour duties? Where and when were coins used? Finally, can the spread of the market and an economic logic of action be understood as a linear process? In order to answer these questions, a set of indicators needs to be developed, combining the written sources with the numismatic and archaeological material.

        Speaker: Dariusz Adamczyk (German Historical Institute in Warsaw)
      • 22
        Two stages of monetization in 13th-century Bohemia: coin renewal and debasement

        The paper presents two stages of monetization in 13th-century Bohemia: coin renewal (renovatio monetae) connected with short-lived coins (deniers, pfennigs, bracteates) and debasement reflected the circulation of long-lived coins (groschen). With references to the coin hoards of Levínská Olešnice (Eastern Bohemia) and Fuchsenhof (Upper Austria), which dated back to the 1280s, the author argues that coin renewal did not necessarily result in devaluation; the quality of coins rather depended on the amount of silver which was at the state’s disposal. At the same time, he points out that the coin renewal had also negative consequences in form of short-term fluctuations in the price level, in the velocity of money, and in the real output and the volume of trade. In this sense, the changeover to Prague groschen represented the completion of the process of monetization which began in Bohemia in the 9th century with the first Bohemian deniers.

        Speaker: Roman Zaoral (Charles University, Faculty of Humanities )
      • 23
        Monetisation of Medieval Europe in Research History

        Particularly in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the research on monetisation in the European Middle Ages which generated some relevant publications. A significant input came mainly from the fields of economic and social history.
        In my talk I propose to outline the history of research into the monetisation in the Middle Ages, discussing the impact of different past approaches on future researchof interest. What questions have already been asked, and how did this affect later research trends in different regions of Europe? What are the difficulties and possible advantages for future research.

        Speaker: Mika Boros (University of Oslo)
      • 24
        Coin jewellery in times of monetisation: Scandinavia c. 1000–1300

        Different indicators have been used to investigate the level of monetisation in early medieval Scandinavia, such as patterns of coin loss or volumes of coin production. In this paper, it is argued that coin jewellery can also provide interesting insights into the subject. What happened to the ancient practice of wearing coins as pendants or brooches when coins began to be produced in Scandinavia? Are there correlations between level of monetisation and fashion for coin jewellery at the local level? The insights provided by coin jewellery are very valuable: they clearly show that monetisation not only affected how coins were used, but also how coins were perceived as objects.

        Speaker: Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm)
    • S79. MODERN TIMES 2. WESTERN EUROPE Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Martin Allen (Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge)
      • 25
        The Engravers of James VI’s 9th Scottish Coinage (1605-9)

        The identities of the engravers of James VI’s 9th Scottish coinage (1605-9) have not been satisfactorily established in the secondary literature. Burns (1887) and Cochran-Patrick (1875 and 1876) posited conflicting attributions. Cochran-Patrick ascribed the work to Thomas Foulis, an engraver based at the Edinburgh mint, whereas Burns credited James Acheson, an engraver employed at the Tower Mint, London. Burns’ attribution is echoed by Bateson and Holmes (2017), Galloway (1986), and Farquhar (1908).
        This paper will utilise published and unpublished Scottish mint records and conduct a detailed study of relevant coins in the collection of The Hunterian museum, Glasgow, to demonstrate that the 9th coinage was jointly engraved by both Foulis and Acheson. These sources will also be used to distinguish between the coins engraved by Foulis and Acheson. Overall, this will serve to illustrate how engravers at the Scottish and English mints cooperated to design and produce the 9th coinage.

        Speaker: Cameron Maclean (The University of Glasgow )
      • 26
        For ‘Change and Charitie’ or Power and Profit? An overview of British 17th-century trade tokens.

        Non-state coinages have not received the same level of scholarly attention as state issues. Yet they have huge potential to help us understand not just non-state coinages of today but also money more broadly, how types become accepted and successful, or not. With over 10,000 issuers within 25 years British 17th-century trade tokens provide an excellent field for exploring these themes and many others.
        This paper will present the initial results of my ongoing PhD research. It will provide a new national overview of this para-numismatic phenomenon and of token issuers. It will explore issuers’ motivations through numismatic and textual evidence. The tokens will be a springboard to wider questions around money issuer motivations using cross-period and international comparisons. In doing so it will provide broader insights into non-state coinages and credit instruments, with a particular focus on power relationships of issuers and acceptors, and on monies of the poor.

        Speaker: Laura Burnett (University of Exeter)
      • 27
        Les outils monétaires d’Augustin Dupré pour le Franc

        Au moment du passage au système décimal et au Franc (1795), Augustin Dupré est graveur général des Monnaies depuis 4 ans. Jusqu'à cette date le graveur général se contentait de produire les poinçons qui étaient envoyés aux ateliers. Le graveur particulier de chaque atelier prenait alors le relais pour produire lescoins.
        Pour la première fois, il devient responsable de la production des pièces destinées à l'ensemble des ateliers de Paris et de province.
        La communication porte sur les outils monétaires de cette période d'une dizaine d'années (1795-1803), outilsqui vont évoluer dans leur forme (les coins vont passer d'une forme carrée à une forme cylindrique) et dans leur processus de création (on passe du sur-mesure artisanal à une multiplication des pièces plus « industrielle »). Toutes les étapes et techniques de création de ces outils seront détaillées et richement illustrées par des objets du Musée de la Monnaie de Paris.

        (EN: At the time of the introduction of the decimal system and the franc (1795), Augustin Dupré had been Chief Engraver of the Mint for four years. Until that time the Chief Engraver limited himself to producing the punches which were sent to the workshops. The engraver at each workshop relied on assistants to produce dies.
        For the first time Dupré became responsible for producing dies sent to all the workshops in Paris and the provinces.
        The paper focuses on the coining tools of the period 1795-1803, tools which evolve in their shape (the corners change from a square to a cylindrical shape) and in the way they were made (changing from individual craftsmanship to machine-made “industrial” pieces). All the steps and techniques for creating these tools will be described and richly illustrated by objects from the Musée de la Monnaie de Paris.)

        Speakers: Laurent Schmitt (SFN, SENA, CEN, ANS, BNS, SNRB, ÖNG, SHN, ADE, ADF), Philippe Théret, Xavier Bourbon
      • 28
        [⊝ not streamed] Real fake. Research on emergency coinage in the Netherlands

        A couple of years ago, I was able to analyse some 10,000 coins and medals in the collection of Teylers Museum, Haarlem, the Netherlands, with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. Since then, I have been working on my own through this data. In this paper I present the data from 196 emergency coins from the period 1529-1814, mainly produced in the Low Countries (the Netherlands and Belgium) in the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648).
        Some 50 of these emergency coins were in the private collection of the founder of the museum, Pieter Teyler van der Hulst. These objects were collected before his death in 1778. This provenance is of some use in the research on later copies and forgeries. The XRF-measurements provide us with new information about the moment of production. There appears to be information hidden underneath the surface of the coins...

        Speaker: Jan Pelsdonk (Teylers Museum)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee break
    • RT 1 - NUMISMATICS IN A DIGITAL WORLD Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Andrew Meadows

      This round table will offer a brief survey of the ways in which new technologies have transformed the way in which we approach the discipline of numismatics and will seek to engage the audience in discussion of the potential to ask new questions of our evidence and organise it in new ways.
      One axis of discussion will be provided by the different types of technological advance we have seen in the last few years:
      -Metadata: Knowledge Organisation Systems, International Authority Files, Linked Open Data
      -Artificial Intelligence: Natural Language Processing

      What can these approaches offer us severally, or in concert?

      A second axis will approach the question from ways in which we work with numismatic material:
      -Collection Management and Cataloguing
      -Knowledge Organisation: Corpora and Iconography
      -Archaeological contexts: Finds and Hoards

      It is hoped that the session will also serve as the introduction to a number of more specialised paper sessions to follow in the Congress Programme.

      Broader Aims
      This roundtable is intended to form a sequel to previous, similar sessions held at the Congresses in Madrid, Glasgow and Messina. We intend it to serve as an ‘introduction’ to a series of paper sessions that are being proposed by various members of the Nomisma community.

      List of panelists:
      Ethan Gruber
      Karsten Tolle, David Wigg Wolf
      Ulrike Peter
      Frédérique Duyrat, Julien Olivier
      Bernhard Weisser
      Pere Pau Ripollès
      Jerome Mairat
      Clare Rowan
      Charles Doyen
      Andrew Meadows

      Convener: Andrew Meadows (New College, Oxford)
      • 29
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Pere Pau Ripollès (Universitat de València)
      • 30
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Jerome Mairat (University of Oxford)
      • 31
        Numismatics in a Digital World- speaker
        Speaker: Clare Rowan (University of Warwick)
      • 32
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Charles Doyen (UCLouvain / FNRS)
      • 33
        Numismatics in a Digital World - speaker
        Speaker: Andrew Meadows (New College, Oxford)
    • S02. GREECE 2. SOUTHERN ITALY: 2. GREECE 2. SOUTHERN ITALY Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Federico Carbone (University of Salerno)
      • 34
        [⊝ not streamed] The coins of Larinum and the Frentani. Reviewing the evidence

        Starting from the third century BC, the Oscan-speaking communities of the Central and Southern Italy began to strike autonomous coin issues based on the earlier samples of the Magna Graecia mints. The coins attributed to the Frentani, were struck in bronze, bearing Oscan legend, with the exception of coins from Larinum, whose legends are in Greek or in Oscan, in the Latin alphabet. This peculiarity reflects how different Larinum was from the other settlements of the Frentanian district, as the city saw a precocious urbanization and a greater participation in the Hellenistic 'koine' in the Italian Peninsula in the 3rd and 2nd century BC, possibly the result of the growing influence of Rome. The focus of this paper is to reexamine the data related to the circulation of the Frentanian coins and their political value in the context of the Italian communities.

        Speaker: Valentino Piva ('Sapienza' University of Rome )
      • 35
        Coins and coloniae: Cosa Coinage as Mechanisms of Socio-Economic Interactions in Middle Republican South Etruria

        The Latin colonia of Cosa was founded in 273 BCE and situated on a promontory overlooking the Mediterranean Sea in Central Italy. While the city has been studied extensively concerning its history and architecture, its socio-economic interactions with the surrounding region, including the full reach of its coinage that was minted at the colony until the mid-third century BCE, has not been overly explored. As a small facet of a larger project that examines regional socio-economic networks among cities in South Etruria during the Middle Republic, this paper presents preliminary findings on the circulation and potential function of coinage from coloniae and non-Roman cities in the region between the third and second centuries BCE. Since Cosa’s coins appear to have joined other Etruscan coins circulating within the region, it seems that the colony’s coinage was intended as a means of interacting with previously established exchange networks and existing trade routes.

        Speaker: Melissa Ludke (Florida State University )
      • 36
        MeBic – Lagioia collection: remarks about circulation of bronze coins between Apulia and western Greek regions

        As part of MeBic project (the upload of Milan Coin Cabinet collections) a significant set of coins was selected to improve the website. This is a group of ancient coins from the Lagioia collection, mainly issues of local Apulian mints and other local mints; the collection has been kept in the Milan Coin Cabinet for a long time, but has not yet been fully and systematically studied. It includes ca. 200 coins that offer interesting clues for an analysis of both the contents of the collection and its history: the set helps to reconsider some issues concerning the horizon of circulation of some local bronze issues in Apulian area, and also to looking into the relationship with some western Greek region coinages. Lastly, it offers a chance to better understand the first owners’ various collecting interests.

        Speakers: Giulia Valli (Gabinetto Numismatico E Medagliere, Milano), Novella Vismara
      • 37
        The sakkos as an identifying element of the female status: a case study from Locri.

        The paper seeks to identify a female head depicted on a silver coin of Locri Epizephyrii through the analysis of its accessories. In particular, the study focuses on the sakkos, a typical attribute of female hairstyles in ancient Greece.
        The research, adopting the LIN method, follows three phases: 1. Collecting evidence highlighting the distribution of sakkos in the ancient world; 2. Identification of characters depicted wearing this headdress during the Greek age; 3. Comparing similar attributes from other coin series.
        As a final step the data is interpreted and used to identify the woman's status. Parallel to the coins, analysis is made also of a bronze ring deriving from Locrian excavations which has an iconography similar to the coin under study. According to the archaeological literature, the figure depicted on the ring is defined euchrua or "good looking".

        Speaker: Marianna Spinelli (University of Calabria )
    • S22. ANTIQUITY 2. ANCIENT SOUTHERN ASIA MINOR IN ANTIQUITY: UNITY IN DIVERSITY?: 22. ANTIQUITY 2. ANCIENT SOUTHERN ASIA MINOR IN ANTIQUITY: UNITY IN DIVERSITY? Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Wilhelm Müseler

      Geographers and historians have a tendency to use the terms ‹Southern Asia Minor› or ‹The Southern Shore› thereby suggesting that this part of the Anatolian peninsula forms a specific unit. In fact, the area is divided into the regions of Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia and Cilicia, which have frequently been the subject of separate studies. The speakers of this panel propose to explore whether the uniformity of Southern Anatolia carries more weight than the diversity of its regions, or whether the differences between different local units indeed prevail, and these general references to the area as a whole should only be used with circumspection. The analysis shall base primarily on a comparative analysis of the numismatic record. Aftern an introduction to different coinages of the area, Achaemenid through Hellenistic to the Roman period, the four speakers will discuss similarities and differences in the purpose and structure of the various regional coin-issues, and between the mint authorities involved. Within this context a number of different aspects such as the beginning of the local use and production of coins, their standards and compatibility as well as the geographical spread and the average timespan of their circulation will be considered.

      Convener: Wilhelm Müseler (Independent Researcher)
      • 38
        Lycian history and coinage at the time of the Achaemenids

        Under the overlordship of the Achaemenids Lycia consisted of several tribal units led by different dynastic clans. The population was dispersed over a great many isolated valley systems, but shared a number of distinct cultural traditions as, for example, a common language and writing system. When coinage was introduced to the area at the beginning of the 5th century BC it soon evolved from an instrument of interregional trade to a means of self-assertion and the propagation of hegemonial claims by rivalling dynastic families and their respective tribes. By the middle of the 4th century BC the dynast Perikle succeeded in uniting the entire peninsula under his control, but was soon deposed and replaced by the Hekatomnids of Caria, who changed the dynastic organization of the Lycian society introducing civic bodies of self-administration within individual settlements, precipitating thereby the process of the gradual Hellenization in Lycia.

        Speaker: Wilhelm Müseler (Independent Researcher)
      • 39
        Ancient Southern Asia Minor in Antiquity: Unity in Diversity? Pamphylia

        In Pamphylia the production of coins started in the Achaemenid period when Aspendos and Side began with minting silver coins on the Persic standard. The exact chronology of the earliest coins of the two cities has not yet been exactly determined. The dating confined to the beginning and the middle of the 5th c. are under discussion. Although Side and Aspendos were neighbours, and their mintages fell back on Greek artistic traditions, their coins reflect the different cultural influence of Pamphylia. Whereas in the 4th century Sillyon started a limited production of some smaller coins, the silver coins of Side and Aspendos reached considerable quantities and a wide distribution both in the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. These coins reflect a considerable involvement in long-distance trade, made possible by the Achaemenid Peace and an imperial administration that gave the cities plenty of freedom.

        Speaker: Johannes Nollé (Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München / Auktionshaus Künker)
      • 40
        Caria and its coinage at the time of the Achaemenids

        Recent research would suggest that some of the earliest coinages of Caria (c. 530-500 BC) were struck in connection with the activities of the Achaemenids, and in some instances, as a reaction to their rule in that region. Carians had their own language and cultural traits that are reflected on some of their coin issues, especially in the 5th century BC. The Greek foundations, all established along the coast, had more conventional coinages displaying little local influence. The next century is marked very much by the coin productions of the members of the Hekatomnid dynasty, which produced one of the first dynastic coinages of the ancient world, foreshadowing the numerous examples of the Hellenistic period.

        Speaker: Koray Konuk (CNRS - Institut Ausonius)
      • 41
        Archaic and Classical Coinage of Cilicia

        Cilicia, located on the southeastern coast of Anatolia, from the time of Cyrus the Great to the Macedonian conquest in 333 BC, was part of the Achaemenid state administrated by local dynasts (called Syennesis) and subsequently, by satraps. The satrapy played a strategic role as a mustering point and recruiting area for the Persian army. Minting activity in Cilicia began around the middle of the 5th century, intensifying over the 4th century BC. There were several active mints in this period. The pattern of Cilicia's coinage was quite complicated. It consisted of civic issues, coins minted by the local elites, as well as by satraps and Achaemenid generals. At the same time, some of the civic issues were minted anonymously by the above-mentioned figures. The coinage of the period is characterized by a specific iconography, the use of the Aramaic and Greek alphabet in the legends, and a fixed system of denominations.

        Speaker: Jarosław Bodzek (Jagiellonian University)
    • S36. ROME 2. EARLY EMPIRE: ROME 2. EARLY EMPIRE Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Bernhard Woytek (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
      • 42
        [⊝ not streamed] Bedeutung von Münzen in der Erforschung der Ewigkeitsidee des römischen Kaisers

        Für einen Historiker, der sich mit der Geschichte der Antike befasst, sind Münzen eine der wichtigsten Quellen, um etwas über die Vergangenheit zu lernen.  Die Idee der aeternitas des römischen Kaisers, die Gegenstand meiner Forschung ist, war am stärksten in der kaiserlichen Münzprägung verwurzelt, die eines der wichtigsten Ausdrucksmittel (und Übermittlungsformen) ideologischer Inhalte für die Repräsentation römischer Macht war. Es war die Art der Berichterstattung in den Medien, die das größtmögliche Publikum erreichte. Die grundlegende Frage ist daher die Bedeutung von Münzen als Kommunikationsmittel im damaligen Diskurs über die Ewigkeit des Kaisers und heute als historische Quelle der untersuchten Idee im Kontext ihrer historischen Entwicklung. Bringen die Münzen, die die Idee der Ewigkeit des Kaisers verbreiten, irgendwelche Einschränkungen bei der Erforschung dieser Idee?

        (EN: For a researcher with interest in the history of antiquity coins are one of the most important sources for understanding the past. The idea of the aeternitas of the Roman emperor, which is the subject of my research, was most strongly rooted in the imperial coinage, which was one of the most important means of expression (and transmission) of ideological content for the representation of Roman power. It was a type of media coverage which reached the widest possible audience. The fundamental question is, therefore, the significance of coins as a means of communication in the discourse on the emperor's eternity of that age, and nowadays, as a historical source on the studied idea in the context of its historical development. Does the fact that propagate the idea of the emperor's eternity bring any limitations in researching this idea?)

        Speaker: Katarzyna Balbuza (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
      • 43
        [⊝ not streamed] Some Remarks on the Iconography of the Augustan Issues of 19 BC

        The use of coin images for the purpose of propaganda considerably increased and became more systematic with the beginning of the Principate. The reverses of the denarii of the triumvir monetalis Petronius Turpilianus seem to refer to some important and recent events of the year in which they were minted – the notorious return of the Parthian standards, the execution of some political rivals of Augustus, and perhaps, also the death of Virgil. This paper will deal with more detailed interpretation of some of these scenes, with special interest paid to the motif of high treason and its rightful punishment.

        Speaker: Lenka Vacinová (National Museum, Prague )
      • 44
        Taxonomy of Bilingual Coins from Augustus to mid-third century AD

        Bernhard Woytek and Dario Calamino have proposed the following three main categories:
        - issues combining the Latin name of the emperor and imperial titles on the obverse with a Greek legend on the reverse
        - "pseudo-bilingual" issues, with imperial names and titles in Greek and a conventional mark of authority in Latin
        - issues regarded as bilingual "by mistake".
        The aim of our paper is to describe other possible types noted between the first century BC and the third century AD, i.e.:
        - bilingual issues with the same text in Latin and in Greek
        - bilingual issues featuring the name and title of one personage (king or emperor) in Latin and a name and a title of another personage (queen or empress) in Greek
        - bilingual coins with the imperial name and titles on the obverse in Greek in a combination with Latin legends on the reverse.

        Speaker: Bartosz Awianowicz (Nicolaus Copernicus University )
    • S50. ROME 16. FINDS AND CIRCULATION 3 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Vincent Drost (Ecole Nationale Supérieure Des Sciences de L'information Et Des Bibliothèques)
      • 45
        Multiple de 2 solidi de Constantin Ier de l’atelier de Trèves trouve en Forêt de Compiègne (Oise)

        La publication d’un multiple d’or inédit de Constantin Ier pour l’atelier de Trèves est l’occasion de faire le point sur la date de l’introduction du solidus dans les domaines de Constantin, de dresser un inventaire des multiples de l’atelier de Trèves, de les comparer avec des pièces unifaces apparues récemment sur le marché numismatique et de revenir sur les trouvailles exceptionnelles effectuées dans la région depuis le XIXe siècle et qui viennent confirmer l’importante géographique, économique et stratégique de la forêt de Compiègne dans l’Antiquité Tardive.

        (EN: The publication of a new gold multiple of Constantine I of the mint of Trier provides an opportunity to date the introduction of the solidus in Constantine’s territories, to make a catalogue of multiples from the mint of Trier, and to compare them with uniface pices that have appeared recently on the numismatic market, and to return to some exceptional finds that have been made in this area since the 19th century, which confirm the geographical, economic and strategic importance of the Forest of Compiegne in the late Roman period.)

        Speakers: Laurent Schmitt (SFN, SENA), Marie-laure Le Brazidec (UMR 5140 (ASM, Montpellier), 5608 (TRACES, Toulouse))
      • 46
        Late Roman Coin Hoards From Archaeological Excavations in Lamego's Castle (PORTUGAL)

        This project started with excavations in Lamego by the company Arqueologia & Património between 2011 and 2016, which brought hundreds of Roman coins to the surface. The goal was to catalogue all of them, interpret their straigraphic distribution and reconstruct the coin groups as they were at the time of loss. Thus, two groups were identified; one with 161 coins and another with 700; the remaining 132 coins were considered “dispersed losses”.
        Analysis confirmed that the two groups date to between the late third and early fifth century. The main types identified were GLORIA EXERCITVS, VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN and FEL TEMP REPARATIO (FH3); consequently, the majority had been minted in the reign of Constantius II. The mints represented by the largest number of coins were Rome and Arelate, followed by Constantinopolis. A comparison with Late Roman series from northern Portugal showed a similar pattern.

        Speaker: Alice Baeta (FLUP )
      • 47
        The Claustra Alpium Iuliarum: a frontier for monetary circulation in the Late Roman period

        A very recent study of monetary circulation in Roman Aquileia during Late Antiquity included an analysis of patterns of coin distribution across the north eastern border of the Diocesis Italiciana. It was found that during the period under study the defensive system known as Claustra Alpium Iuliarum became a closed frontier for the circulation of coins between Italy and the Balkans. This area played a key role in the major military events of the Late Roman period and, because of its strategic position and role, most of the usurpers chose Aquileia as headquarters. Within the territory under their authority, the need for a regular supply of their armies imposed a strict control of the monetary production and circulation, in fact, a “monetary autarchy”, documented by the distribution of the coin finds. Apart from the numismatic aspect, this evidence can shed further light on the usurpations.

        Speaker: Andrea Stella (University of Padua)
      • 48
        [⊝ not streamed] Coins from the excavations at Dibsi Faraj, Northern Syria (1971-1974)

        In the early 1970s rescue excavations funded by the Dumbarton Oaks Center and Kelsey Museum (Michigan University) were conducted at Dibsi Faraj (Syria). Except for preliminary reports neither the excavations nor the materials recovered (1,676 coins were found) were subsequently published. The archive of the excavations is currently preserved at Durham University.
        Roman and Byzantine coins had been catalogued in a preliminary manner by Richard Harper, the excavation director. For Arab coins he requested the collaboration of two experts in Islamic antiquities, Priscilla Soucek and Muhammad El-Kholi (Damascus National Museum).
        With no access to the coins, whose location is currently unknown, Harper’s hand-written forms and Soucek and El-Kholi’s reports must be the corner-stone of my reassessment of the numismatic finds, made within the frames of the publication project coordinated by Anna Leone.
        A synthesis of the monetary circulation at Dibsi Faraj in Antiquity and the medieval period will be presented.

        Speaker: Massimiliano Munzi (Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali )
    • S64. MIDDLE AGES 2. MONETISATION IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE. FORMS, PROCESSES AND TENDENCIES FROM THE 8TH TO THE 13TH CENTURY Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Org. Johannes Hartner, Rory Naismith; chair: Svein Gullbekk and Rory Naismith

      In recent years there has been an increased scientific interest in research on monetisation processes and the related beginning of coinage economies in various European regions during the Middle Ages. These more recent research approaches are by no means limited to the subjects of numismatics and monetary history but draw important impulses from the economic, social and cultural-historical areas as well as from archaeology and financial history.
      Meanwhile the term "Monetisation" appears to be almost too abstract to describe the actual monetary processes, structures and dimensions that underlie these complex developments - only ostensibly monetary, but also social and economic. There is a lack of theoretical concepts and general definitions that can only be achieved through interdisciplinary and comparative approaches and discourses.
      For this reason, we would like to submit two sessions with four speakers each, to promote the postulated "monetisation" in large parts of Europe (Scandinavia, Poland, France, Austria / southern Germany) from the 8th to the 13th century, to grasp the content and to define various forms of expression of these processes. Individual detailed studies will be presented and controversially discussed within this platform. The resulting comparison is expected to lead to theoretical and generally valid conclusions about medieval monetisation processes (factors, conditions and definitions).
      This session is closely related to the one submitted by Professor S.H. Gullbekk (Oslo) and Professor J.A. Risvaag (Trondheim), which also lists eight papers on the topic of medieval monetarisation, with a focus on the Scandinavian region. These two sessions have been coordinated with each other.

      Convener: Svein Gullbekk (Museum of Cultural History / University of Oslo)
      • 49
        The Beginning of Coinage in 12th Century Austria. Monetisation as an essential factor in the expansion of the country

        In the 11th and 12th century complex transformation processes took place in Eastern Austria, resulting in the consolidation of the manorial and the economic structures. There was a growth of urban markets and regional trading areas, and an increase in the construction of fortifications. In the context of the expansion of the country, these developments contributed to a comprehensive formation of rulership.
        An important factor insufficiently taken into account in past research is Austrian coinage, introduced at this time, approximately in the first third of the 12th century – previously , the region had managed without minting own coins.
        This raises the question of the intention behind the minting coins, and the significance of the beginning monetisation for the emerging territorial authorities of the advancing expansion of the country.

        Speaker: Johannes Hartner (Coin Collection, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna)
      • 50
        Monetisation processes in medieval visual media

        Social and economic change left its mark on medieval art. This is true also of the progressing monetisation of European society between the 8th and 13th centuries. This talk will focus on possible correlations between regional tendencies and perception of monetisation processes, and the representation of coins or money in visual art. What influence of the regional status of coined money is shown by the visualisation of money or coins e.g., in figurative monumental sculpture, book illumination or precious metalwork of similar origin and date? Furthermore, the impact of monetisation on the most common and far-reaching visual medium, coinage itself, will be explored: at the early stage of the monetary economy how were coins designed? How do images, flans and inscriptions change parallel to the spread of money? Which supra-regional parallels are to be found?

        Speaker: Alexandra Hylla (Salzburg Museum)
      • 51
        The Buyids and the end of the influx of Islamic Dirhams into 10th century Eastern Europe

        More than 50,000 Islamic dirhams have been recovered on the post-1945 territory of Poland. While most had been minted by the Abbasid Caliphs and the Iranian Samanid dynasty, the Buyid coinage constitutes merely a fraction of this pool (approx. 300 coins). This however, does not reflect the significance of the Buyid dynasty within the political and economic landscape of the Islamic world in the 10th & 11th century. In addition to a detailed analysis of the role played by Buyid coins found in Polish hoards, the paper examines how the developments in the Islamic world influenced Polish hoarding practices in the 10th century. Finally, we explore whether the economic shift towards Western Europe engendered by the strengthening of Piast rule could have influenced Islamic coin production.

        Speaker: Michał Maliczowski (Universität Wien)
      • 52
        Rethinking Monetisation in Early Medieval England

        Instead of focusing on the limitations of the relatively scarce and high-value early medieval currency, this talk asks instead why such coins might have been made. In early medieval England the manufacture of coin was probably driven by a wide range of functional demands, but a narrower segment of society, with the needs of the elite wasparamount. This dichotomy can be traced from the seventh century onwards, but will be explored at more depth with reference to the tenth- and eleventh-century English coinage, which carries the names of numerous mint-places and moneyers. It will be demonstrated that moneyers were integrated into networks of elite demand, and occupied a middling position that allowed them to deal both with high- and low-status elements of society.

        Speaker: Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
    • S80. MODERN TIMES 3. EUROPE AND COLONIES Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Jérôme Jambu (Université de Lille / CNRS)
      • 53
        Modern coins under threat: an Italian prisoner prosecuted by the Allied Government in Sicily (1943)

        Giuseppe Marra, an Italian soldier, was captured by the Allies in Sicily during Operation Husky (July 1943). Marra was prosecuted by a military court of the Allied Military Government of the Occupied Territories (AMGOT) for looting 24 Sicilian silver coins of Philip III (1598-1621) and Philip IV (1621-65). My paper examines new records to report on this event.
        First, I contextualise the episode within my current ERC project Cultural Heritage in Danger: Archaeology and Communities in Sicily during the Second World War (1940–45). I then present the numismatic data afforded by the records. Thirdly, I assess the role of Captain Hammond (1903-2002), Monuments Officer of the AMGOT, in seizing the coins and delivering them to the Museum of Palermo. This information is essential to better understand how military authorities acted to safeguard antiquities in a war context, particularly when troops plundered coins illegally.

        Speaker: Antonino Crisà (Ghent University, Department of Archaeology )
      • 54
        The Ottoman campaign of 1595 in Wallachia – numismatic evidence

        The authors discuss an episode of the Long Turkish War (1593-1606), the Ottoman campaign of 1595 in Wallachia, in the light of the numismatic material. A range of Wallachian coin hoards ending in or around 1595, whose dating is based on either European coinage or Ottoman coins of Murad III, provides information on the actions of the Wallachians and their allies to prevent and repel the Ottoman attack and on the great devastation caused by the war. The structure of these deposits offers new data regarding the main transformations occurring in coin circulation compared to the pre-war period: the changes to Ottoman coinage, its gradual replacement with European coinage (mainly Hungarian and German) as the dominant currency, and the increasing role of the emerging high-value silver coins, the thalers.

        Speakers: Eugen Nicolae, Marius Blaskó (Institutul de Arheologie "Vasile Pârvan" )
      • 55
        Money Plurality in the Early Modern Colonial Context : The Mascarene Islands’ Case

        The Mascarene Islands (Mauritius and Réunion), a French overseas territory during the 18th century, are an interesting case for examining the complexity of money in a colonial context. The specificity of the Mascarene monetary system is largely linked to the insular and colonial context that shapes the means of currency provision and monetary practices.
        I wish to explain the diversity of means of payment instruments that circulate in this micro-territory: French colonial coins, foreign coins such as the Spanish dollar or pieces of eight, paper money issued by the French colonial administration, letters of exchange and payment receipts that change hands.
        Using numismatics and French archives, this paper has three objectives: first, to present the monetary plurality and its causes; second, to highlight the conversion mechanisms that enable the Mascarene monetary system to function as a whole; third, to examine the consequence of this monetary configuration on money credibility and on economic activity.

        Speaker: Juliette Francoise (University of Geneva ; University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne )
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch break
    • RT 2 - THE COIN HOARDS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE PROJECT – 10 YEARS ON! UNUM FIAT EX PLURIBUS Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. by Cristian Gazdac, Christopher Howgego, Marguerite Spoerri Butcher; moderator: Cristian Gazdac

      The year 2013 witnessed the start of the Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project as a joint initiative of the Ashmolean Museum and the Oxford Roman Economy Project.
      This international collaborative project fills a major lacuna in the digital coverage of coin hoards from antiquity. It aims to collect hoards of all coinages in use in the Roman Empire between approximately 30 BC and AD 400 (and later where appropriate). Imperial coinage forms the main focus of the project, but Iron-Age and Roman Provincial coinages in circulation within this period are also included to give a complete picture of the monetary systems in the West and the East. The single gold coins are also included as, sometimes, they may have functioned as hoards.
      The project has become a true network of scholars and friends, currently involving 48 institutions from 25 countries and 62 collaborators.

      Phase I (2013-2018) saw the collection of hoard data from all Roman provinces and the input of a selection of hoards at the level of the individual coin. 12,144 hoards and single gold coins, amounting to 3.5 million coins, were entered by the core team and collaborators.
      Phase II (2019-2023) extended the range of the project to include Roman hoards and individual coins from outside the Empire. The focus is on the completion of geographical coverage and on the daunting task of systematically recording hoards at the level of the coin (RIC numbers and full descriptions), where such data are available.

      The Warsaw International Numismatic Congress offers the perfect occasion to discuss the research potential of the project and how to exploit the chronological and geographical range of so much data. It will also enable some of the project’s collaborators to showcase their contributions, and offer an opportunity to discuss the agenda for the future.

      List of panelists:
      Cristian Gazdac
      Christopher Howgego
      Marguerite Spoerri Butcher
      Arkadiusz Dymowski
      Mariangela Puglisi
      Rahel Ackerman
      Varbyn Varbanov
      Istvan Vida

      Convener: Cristian Gazdac (Ashmolean Museum / University of Oxford)
      • 56
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus - Introduction
        Speaker: Cristian Gazdac (Ashmolean Museum / University of Oxford)
      • 57
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus
        Speaker: Arkadiusz Dymowski (University of Warsaw)
      • 58
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus
        Speaker: Mariangela Puglisi (Università di Messina)
      • 59
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus
        Speaker: Rahel C. Ackermann (Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds)
      • 60
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus
        Speaker: Varbyn Varbanov (Regional Museum of History - Russe, Bulgaria)
      • 61
        The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project - 10 years on! Unum fiat ex Pluribus
        Speaker: István Vida (Hungarian National Museum)
    • S03. GREECE 3. GREEK COIN ICONOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL ERA: 3. GREECE 3. GREEK COIN ICONOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL ERA Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Org.: Ulrike Peter, Frédérique Duyrat, chair: Vladimir Stolba

      Numismatic iconography is a rapidly evolving research area, which with advent of new technologies also becomes increasingly interdisciplinary. While its potential for the history of the Roman world has long been appreciated, numerous paths are still to be developed in the field of Greek numismatics. Sharing the basic theoretical framework of the 'Bildwissenschaften', Greek coin iconography has, however, its specifics which make mandatory an approach that is different from the one used for Roman or provincial coinage. This has been clearly demonstrated by a range of international conferences on the topic held in Italy, Germany, and Greece over the last decade.
      A number of novel approaches and potential new directions in the field that were identified include:
      - promoting research on Greek coin iconography;
      - implementing a quantitative approach;
      - paying attention to multiple contexts (numismatic, historical, archaeological), with a special focus on contemporary Greek art history;
      - analysing image choices and the general evolution of coin types and their distributions vis-à-vis their metals and denominations;
      - studying the engraver styles on various levels (international, regional, personal); and
      - identifying target audiences and the problems of reception, also beyond the scope of Antiquity.
      Digital approaches that have become a new and rapidly advancing trend in numismatic research also raise the question of what Linked Open Data, Natural Language Processing, image recognition and the new tools under construction, such as web portals devoted to iconography, can bring to such a topic. The session aims at identifying where this research currently stands, and how and in which directions we should move further. We invite specialists working on Greek coins from different parts of the ancient Greek world, which should offer a broad geographical and chronological perspective from the beginning of this coinage down to the Roman provincial.

      Convener: Vladimir Stolba (Staatliche Museen Zu Berlin, Münzkabinett / Berlin-Brandenburg Academy Of Sciences And Humanities)
      • 62
        Iconographic Ambiguities in Greek Coinage: The Corpus Nummorum and the So-Called Torches of Byzantion

        This paper explores the potential of new digital tools in the study of numismatic iconography, taking as an example the Corpus Nummorum Portal—which produces iconographic authority data and aims to create a hierarchical, multilingual Thesaurus Iconographicus Nummorum Graecorum (ThING). It focuses on a specific motif present in the Roman provincial coinage of Byzantion that reoccurs on the issues spanning the period from Trajan to Gallienus and represents objects whose nature remains obscure. Although their identification as fish traps goes back to the 19th century, the corpus study by Edith Schönert-Geiß, who discussed this topic in detail, accounts for the popularity of an alternative interpretation favoured already by Eckhel: namely, their identification as beacons or torches. Based on iconographic evidence of coinage and other visual testimonies, the “readings” of this motif are re-examined.

        Speakers: Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Der Wissenschaften), Vladimir Stolba (Staatliche Museen Zu Berlin, Münzkabinett / Berlin-Brandenburg Academy Of Sciences And Humanities)
      • 63
        ARCH – an online project overarching the coinage of the Greek world

        The ARCH project - Ancient Coinage as Related Cultural Heritage - uses Linked Open Data technology to establish, for the first time, an overarching platform for the study, curation, archiving and preservation of the monetary heritage of the ancient world. It is available through a portal where all the types known from the Greek world, from the 7th to the 1st century BC, are made available in a hierarchy based on previous bibliography and links to other portals such as MIB, Hellenistic Royal Coinage and Corpus Nummorum Online. This paper aims at explaining how the typology underlying the ARCH project is built and how it can grow and be exploited for iconographical study.

        Speakers: Frédérique Duyrat, Julien Olivier (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
      • 64
        Challenges of creating a type corpus of early electrum coinage

        Electrum coinages, minted from 640 BCE well into the fifth century, are usually grouped under the amorphous term of “early electrum coinage”. There are publications of a few museum catalogues and specialized collections, but no comprehensive type catalogue exists. The only monograph that offers some sort of typology of the earliest coins was written in 1975 by Liselotte Weidauer (Probleme der frühen Elektronprägung). Online coin databases have shown a way forward to how to present coin types using linked open data. In a database started a few years ago, Ute Wartenberg and Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert have begun a classification of c. 10,000 electrum coins. The challenges of creating a typology of electrum coins which are only distinguished by varying emblems but very rarely bear legends are discussed. A proposal for an iconographic structure, which uses a hierarchical organization of types, will be tested on electrum coins.

        Speaker: Ute Wartenberg (American Numismatic Society)
      • 65
        Between Greek and Roman iconography: imaging the Emperor on civic coinage in the Roman East

        This paper presents the preliminary results of the ERC Cog RESP project (The Roman Emperor Seen from the Provinces – GA 101002763), which investigates how Roman emperors, Augustus to Diocletian, were represented on visual media in the provinces. The research combines quantitative analysis of coin types in the RESP project database – linked to the RPC online database, with comparative analysis of coin imagery and sculptural representations of Roman emperors, to study the modes and tropes of imperial representation in full-figure in the Roman East. This integrated approach allows for a comprehensive study of the treatment of the imperial image and of the interpretation of its ideological background outside the Italian Peninsula. It reconstructs the genesis of Roman provincial iconographies to understand whether they conformed to Roman metropolitan models, or reinterpreted them, or again featured as entirely new creations, following the artistic and cultural paradigms of the Greek world.

        Speaker: Dario Calomino (University of Verona)
    • S22. ANTIQUITY 2. ANCIENT SOUTHERN ASIA MINOR IN ANTIQUITY: UNITY IN DIVERSITY?: ANTIQUITY 2. ANCIENT SOUTHERN ASIA MINOR IN ANTIQUITY: UNITY IN DIVERSITY? Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Wilhelm Müseler

      Geographers and historians have a tendency to use the terms ‹Southern Asia Minor› or ‹The Southern Shore› thereby suggesting that this part of the Anatolian peninsula forms a specific unit. In fact, the area is divided into the regions of Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia and Cilicia, which have frequently been the subject of separate studies. The speakers of this panel propose to explore whether the uniformity of Southern Anatolia carries more weight than the diversity of its regions, or whether the differences between different local units indeed prevail, and these general references to the area as a whole should only be used with circumspection. The analysis shall base primarily on a comparative analysis of the numismatic record. Aftern an introduction to different coinages of the area, Achaemenid through Hellenistic to the Roman period, the four speakers will discuss similarities and differences in the purpose and structure of the various regional coin-issues, and between the mint authorities involved. Within this context a number of different aspects such as the beginning of the local use and production of coins, their standards and compatibility as well as the geographical spread and the average timespan of their circulation will be considered.

      Convener: Wilhelm Müseler (Independent Researcher)
      • 66
        Lycian history and coinage in Hellenistic and Roman times

        In the division of Alexander’s realm Lycia fell under the control of the Ptolemies of Egypt and issued only very few coins throughout the 3rd century BC. In 188 BC with the peace of Apamea the Romans entrusted the administration of most of the Lycian peninsula to the island of Rhodes. Opposing this step several Lycian communities formed a political league wishing to bring about Lycian independence and a proper alliance with the Romans. Finally, Rome granted this privilege to the towns organized in the league, which subsequently formed a confederate republic, with common institutions and the right to strike its own coinage for more than 200 years. After the final integration into the Empire there was an attempt to install an imperial mint at Patara, but this was soon abandoned. With one short-lived exception there was, however, no imperial bronze coinage struck in Lycia in the name of different cities.

        Speaker: Wilhelm Müseler (Independent Researcher)
      • 67
        Pamphylia in the Hellenistic and Roman Time

        The conquest of Asia by Alexander left the cities of Southern Asia Minor with perceptible limitations of their freedom. Side was a mint of Alexander, but ceased producing coins in 317 BC. The monarchs of the Hellenistic period controlled, restricted or prohibited the cities’ minting activities. Antiochos III. forced several cities of Pamphylia to mint posthumous Alexander coins. Only the Seleucid ally Side received the permission to mint tetradrachms with the city’s own designs. Side would continue the minting of such coins up to the foundation of Roman monarchy. The emergence of Perge as a mint producing silver coins in the name of Artemis reveals that city’s promotion to a place of pilgrimage. During the principate even the smaller cities of Pamphylia minted bronze coins, reflecting economic-welfare until the middle of the 3rd c. AD, followed by a rapid decline which led to the end of minting in Pamphylia.

        Speaker: Johannes Nollé (Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München / Auktionshaus Künker)
      • 68
        Caria and its coinage during the Hellenistic and Roman periods

        The conquest of Alexander the Great had a significant impact on the coin production of Carian mints, similarly as in most of the territories subdued by the Macedonian king. His successors and their officials minted in their own names, while civic mints continuing to strike their own coins. The next century was marked in Caria by a continuous struggle for power of Ptolemaic, Seleucid, and Antigonid rulers which was followed by the emergence of an ever-powerful island city: Rhodes, which would influence a number of Carian mints, especially after the treaty of Apameia in 188 BC. By then, Rome had become the key player and the kingmaker in western Asia Minor. Rome's influence and imprint are not always visible on the coinages of a century and a half which preceded Augustus whose rule represents a defining turning point for the local coinages of Caria for the next three centuries.

        Speaker: Koray Konuk (Centre National de La Recherche Scientifique, Institut Ausonius)
      • 69
        Coinage of Cilicia in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods

        After the Macedonian conquest, the position of the governor of Cilicia was taken by Balakros, who minted coins on his own. Alexander the Great used Tarsos and Myriandros to strike imperial types. During the Hellenistic period, Cilicia was the subject of rivalry between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. The latter used several Cilician mints for the production of coins. Besides the royal issues, civic coins were also minted. In 64 BC, by the decision of Pompey the Great, Cilicia became a Roman province. The coinage of the region in the Roman period consisted of civic issues, coins minted by representatives of the local Teukrid, Tarkondimotid and Orontid dynasties, as well as Roman Provincial coinage. Most of the issues minted during the Roman period were bronzes, except for silver teradrachms produced in Tarsus and Aegae. The Cilician mints ceased to operate during the reign of Gallien.

        Speaker: Jarosław Bodzek (Jagiellonian University)
    • S37. ROME 3. DATA-DRIVEN APPROACHES TO ROMAN COINAGE: METROLOGY, METALLURGY AND MODELLING Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Org. and chair: George A. Green

      This session seeks to showcase some of the latest research on Roman coinage where scientific, data-driven methods have been employed. The four papers will cover approaches ranging from the familiar to the cutting-edge, but in each case our understanding of the topic at hand has been deepened through the collection, interrogation and manipulation of data.
      The use of metrological data should be familiar to numismatists, but there is still scope for novel conclusions even with traditional methods. Here Green presents an analysis of 3000 aurei weights from second-century hoards, arguing that the rate of wear of the aureus – and therefore the velocity of its circulation – is far greater than has been traditionally accepted.
      Metallurgical analyses of Roman coinage have been greatly aided by advances in chemistry and physics. In recent decades the use of high precision techniques, such as ICP-mass spectrometry, has become an established part of the archaeometric pantheon. Here Butcher and Ponting present results from their most recent analyses of Roman silver coinages, focusing on the conclusions that can be drawn from the trace element composition of the metal. At the bleeding-edge of this field is a brand-new technique called muonic X-ray emission spectroscopy that allows penetrative, major element analyses of cultural heritage objects to be conducted totally non-destructively. Here Hillier demonstrates how μXES has been used to investigate the question of surface enrichment in Roman gold and silver coinages.
      Finally, the rich data generated by numismatic studies provides fertile ground for the application of computer modelling. This approach is still in its relative infancy within Roman numismatics, but there is clearly scope for the development of important research themes. Here Chiu-Smit presents some of the early conclusions from his doctoral work combining agent-based modelling with online databases of Roman coinage.

      Convener: George A. Green (Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)
      • 70
        The aureus as a high velocity gold coin – an analysis of metrological data from second-century-AD gold hoards

        It will be argued here that the aureus had a much higher velocity of circulation than Duncan-Jones and others gave it credit for.
        The data underpinning the notion that the aureus was low velocity coin comes from Duncan-Jones’ comparison of the weight loss of aurei from his “Belgian Hoard” with the weight loss of the English sovereign. A similar rate of wear to the sovereign, which was alloyed for hardness, was used to present the aureus as ‘low velocity.’
        Here over 3000 individual weights of aurei from seven hoards will be compared against 11 mint surveys conducted for the English sovereign and other 19th-century gold coins. Not only does the aureus have a rate of wear that is over double that of Duncan-Jones’ original estimate, but one that is well in excess of these modern gold coins. For a gold coin, then, the aureus appears to be relatively high-velocity.

        Speaker: George A. Green (Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford)
      • 71
        [⊝ not streamed] New analyses of Roman Republican silver coins

        The chemical composition of silver coinage under the Roman Republic has been little studied. The largest recent survey is that of Holstein (2000), involving the analysis of 590 coins. The main analytical technique used was electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA) directly on unprepared surfaces, which was unable to overcome surface effects that produced enhanced silver levels and reduced copper levels unrepresentative of the original compositions as well as alterations to the few trace elements measured. Comparisons carried out at the time by the British Museum Laboratories (Cowell and Ponting 2000) revealed the extent of the problem and how this potentially masked important compositional variations.
        As part of the ERC-Funded RACOM project (835180 RACOM ERC-2018-ADG), over 1000 Roman Republican silver coins from c. 150 BC to the Augustan period have been sampled by drilling and analysed by microwave-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). This paper presents the preliminary findings and interpretation of these data.

        Speakers: Kevin Butcher (University of Warwick), Matthew Ponting (University of Liverpool)
      • 72
        Probing beneath the surface without a scratch: Non-destructive compositional analysis using negative muons

        Non-destructive compositional analyses are extremely important in many cultural heritage fields. The use of negative muons (an electron analogue) has seen a resurgence in recent times, with developments occurring at several muon sources. After implanting negative muons into a sample muonic x-rays and gammas are released – these can then be detected to determine the composition of the sample. While similar in principle to X-ray fluorescence, the negative muon technique can analyse deep beneath the surface of the sample. By controlling the muons momentum (or energy) the implantation depth of the muons can be controlled, ranging from 10s of µm to 10s of mm. This means the composition at different depths within the sample can be determined non-destructively. Here we review the technique and its recent applications to numismatics, presenting case studies on Roman gold and silver coinage: the former showing no evidence of surface enrichment, the latter unambiguous evidence.

        Speakers: Adrian Hillier (ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, UKRI/STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), George A. Green (Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford), Kevin Butcher (University of Warwick), Matthew Ponting (University of Liverpool), Thomas Elliot (University of Liverpool)
    • S51. ROME 17. FINDS AND CIRCULATION 4 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Fernando López-Sánchez (Complutense University of Madrid)
      • 73
        The Regina Turdulorum Hoard (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) and the Divo Claudio issues

        This contribution reports on an important Spanish hoard with 818 imitative antoniniani of Divo Claudio type (post 270), minted in copper alloy. I will analyse its relationship to other Hispanic and European hoards. It is possible to study these antoniniani from the point of view of their styles, characteristic of different workshops in Italy, Gaul and Africa. I will also comment on the survival of Divo Claudio coins in the Spanish archaeological record based on later hoards.

        Speaker: David Martínez Chico (Universitat de València )
      • 74
        The Roman hoard of Tomares: a coin find “Too Big to Study” - preliminary results

        The discovery in 2016 of the Tomares Tetrarchic hoard was undoubtedly one of the most important cultural events to have taken place on the Iberian Peninsula in recent times. A team made up of members of several centers and departments of the University of Seville is currently working on the hoard in an interdisciplinary way involving a historical-numismatic study and a metallography analysis. Laying the foundations for the study of this hoard described in the title of a recent conference (Trieste, 2018) as “too big to study” has been an enormous challenge. The micro-excavation of nos. 10 and 11 has provided the material on which this initial work is based. With a significant number of coins studied (around 10% of the total), it is now possible to advance the preliminary results of the research of this colossal hoard.

        Speakers: Enrique García Vargas, Ruth Pliego (University of Seville )
      • 75
        Ancient coin finds in Archaeological contexts of Algeciras Bay (Cadiz, Spain)

        In this paper we present the results of recent research projects - SAMOIMAR CEIJ-C04.2; PY20_01295 WONDERCOINS-HIS; 5147126418-126418-4-21 MARIT-SIS- accomplished in the Bay of Algeciras. They focused on the collection and analysis of the coinage from ancient times found on different archaeological sites in this region.
        This work is intended primarily to extract information about what the coin evidence can contribute to the knowledge of the movement of people and goods in this key point of nautical activity and maritime trade in the region of the Straits of Gibraltar during ancient times.

        Speakers: Alicia Arévalo-González (Universidad de Cádiz ), Elena Moreno Pulido (Universidad de Cádiz)
      • 76
        A coin group from the latrine of the Roman Villa of Vilauba (Cataluña, España)

        The balneum of the Roman villa of Vilauba was excavated in 2014. The archaeological site is located in the northeast of the ancient Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, now in the municipality of Camós (province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain). In the west part of the thermal complex, which was built during the second half of the 2nd century AD, a small room was identified as a latrina, crossed by a water evacuation channel built of tegulae. Found over the tegulae was a group of forty coins. Mostly AE4, the coins were dated to the second half of the 4th century AD.
        In the present paper we analyse in detail the composition of this fairly uniform group of coins, and address also some other problems, such as chronology, the value of this group and possible reasons for its concealment.

        Speakers: Joan Frigola, Joaquim Tremoleda (Grup de Recerca Arqueològica del Pla de l'Estany), Marc Bouzas (Universitat de Girona), Pere Castanyer
    • S65. MIDDLE AGES 3. NEW PERSPECTIVES ON MEDIEVAL COINAGES: COIN FINDS, CIRCULATION AND RECENT RESEARCH Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Org.: Martin Allen, Marcus Phillips, Julian Baker, Richard Kelleher; chair: Rory Naismith

      This session, sponsored by the Medieval European Coinage Project of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, will present new research by authors mainly working on the silver coinages of Western Europe and the Mediterranean world.
      Recent coin finds have provided new insights into the organisation of the English royal coinage after the Norman Conquest of 1066 and local coinages during the civil war of the reign of King Stephen (1135-54). The reporting and publication of coin finds has also greatly increased our understanding of coin production and use in other parts of the medieval world. In complex numismatic contexts such as the Low Countries and the Latin East, new research is resolving many remaining problems in the coinages of various mints.
      The speakers are Martin Allen, 'New discoveries in the Anglo-Norman coinage of 1066-1158', Julian Baker, ‘Areas of circulation of medieval Greek deniers tournois in the light of recent finds’, Richard Kelleher, 'New thoughts on the coinage of Crusader Edessa and Antioch', and Marcus Phillips, ‘How to catalogue the gros au lis: Flanders or France?’

      Convener: Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 77
        [⊝ not streamed] New discoveries in the Anglo-Norman coinage of 1066-1158

        The Chew Valley hoard has greatly increased knowledge of the first English coinage of William I after his invasion of England in 1066 and the degree of continuity in mints and moneyers from the last coinage of Anglo-Saxon England. Single finds recorded by the Fitzwilliam Museum’s Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds (EMC) have provided many coins of mints or moneyers new to their coinage type between 1066 and the end of the English periodic recoinage system in 1158. Understanding of the complex regional coinages of the civil war of King Stephen’s reign (1135-54) has been considerably advanced by new finds.

        Speaker: Martin Allen (Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge)
      • 78
        Areas of circulation of medieval Greek deniers tournois in the light of recent finds

        Deniers tournois coinages were issued in enormous quantities in medieval Mainland Greece and adjoining territories (Achaia, Athens, etc.) in the 13th and 14th centuries. The database of coin finds, within the primary and secondary (especially in Italy, Albania-Macedonia-Bulgaria, and Anatolia) areas of circulation, has augmented steadily over the last decade and we are now able to view the usage of such coins in different and more precisely defined historical contexts.

        Speaker: Julian Baker (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)
      • 79
        New thoughts on the coinage of Crusader Edessa and Antioch

        Drawing on newly available material and coins in museum collections this paper offers a revision on the classification of some of the Crusader coinages of Edessa and Antioch. Three areas will be considered: 1) the light folles of Baldwin II of Edessa; 2) the folles of Bohemond I at Antioch; and 3) the billon deniers of Raymond of Poitiers at Antioch. Both new specimens that have appeared in trade over the past fifteen years, and coins in public collections in Europe and North America, provide compelling evidence that a revision of these classifications in both timely and necessary.

        Speaker: Richard Kelleher (Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge)
      • 80
        How to catalogue the gros au lis: Flanders or France?

        Cataloguers sometimes prefer to stick with old, discredited, attributions rather than use new ones. One reason is that modern classifications tend to get ever more complicated; the French gros tournois series being a case in point. The gros au lis is a relatively scarce type of gros tournois which, it used to be thought, were struck in Bruges between 1298 and 1302. In the 1997 publication, The Gros Tournois this attribution was shown to be untenable on both coin and written evidence. This has generally been totally ignored. The problem is that it is still not clear where the type does belong. Consequently all of the specimens in the Grierson collection at the Fitzwilliam Museum are still in the Flanders cabinet. In MEC the proposed solution is to move them all to France, but is this too drastic given the uncertainty over the issue?

        Speaker: Marcus Phillips (Independent Researcher)
    • S81. MODERN TIMES 4. MONETARY SOVEREIGNTY IN THE UNITED STATES: 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Org. and chair: Jesse Kraft

      Ever since 1676, when Edward Randolph commented on the coinage of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—“as a marke of soveraignty they coin money”- monetary sovereignty in the British colonies was a topic of interest. By the late 18th century, when the fledgling United States was in the process of creating itself, the iconography of the national coinage became a topic of discussion. While the coinage itself was an expression of monetary sovereignty, the legal definition of the imagery as “an impression emblematic of liberty” was a further declaration of sovereignty by the United States from their former colonial power. Meanwhile, George Washington was vehemently against his own portrait on the face of the nation’s coinage. Ironically, Washington’s bust is currently on all 25¢ coins and $1 bills from the United States. This topic of monetary sovereignty in the United States can add value to the study of American history, economics, and numismatics. Sovereignty is often discussed only within a European framework—revolving around monarchs, imperialism, and struggles between Continental powers. While the topic has begun to broaden to include the monetary sovereignty of the British colonies and early Federal period—through the works of Jonathan Barth, Jane Knodell, and Farley Grubb—expanding these notions through the long 19th century will prove fruitful in understanding the complexities of long-term building of monetary sovereignty. Examples of possible topics for papers include building sovereignty through numismatic imagery; the inability to commit to monetary sovereignty and the need for foreign coinage; international monetary strategies of late-19th centuries as antithesis to sovereignty; and American monetary sovereignty from the view of the European powers who lost its control. The potential audience of the session includes parties interested in nation building, the power of imagery, colonial America and 19th century United States, and, of course, numismatists.

      Convener: Jesse Kraft (American Numismatic Society)
      • 81
        A Desire for Monetary Sovereignty: The Circulation of Foreign Coinage in the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries

        Until the middle of the 19th century, the United States did not have the means to provide its population with a steady supply of domestic coinage. Prior to this, as the Founding Fathers attempted to define a national coinage, concerns of monetary sovereignty permeated their discussions. They understood that a national coinage was an important part of exhibiting sovereignty, but had little resources to achieve these goals. While successful in defining the United States monetary system, implementing one proved even more difficult. As Spanish-American coinage (and others) continued to dominate the channels of circulation, people who wished for monetary sovereignty called for an “American coin” to replace those of other realms. Despite various attempts to fulfill these wishes, generations of Americans continued to use non-domestic coins as a means of circulation.

        Speaker: Jesse Kraft (American Numismatic Society)
      • 82
        Image and Republican Sovereignty: Negotiating the Numismatic Iconography of the Early American Republic

        In 1792 George Washington refused to have his name and portrait placed on the proposed coinage for the fledgling United States. Why? This question has become harder to answer in the last century since placing the images of dead Presidents on coinage has become commonplace – including that of George Washington. The symbolism of the images placed on money has lost much of its significance.
        The answer is to be found in the Founding Father’s perception of money as a conveyor of political ideals. This perception was inherited from European ideas about money that, in turn, derived from Roman Republican monetary concepts. It is intimately connected to the core American problem of the period – how to forge a new nation of thirteen bickering States. This discussion explores the numismatic history behind the Founding Fathers’ concepts of the relationship between money and sovereignty and the imagery appropriate for a Republic.

        Speaker: Douglas Mudd (American Numismatic Society)
      • 83
        Lady Liberty as a Symbol of United States Sovereignty

        When the Coinage Act of 1792 authorized the national monetary system of the United States, Congress stipulated that “there shall be an impression emblematic of liberty” on the obverse of each coin. Immediately, those responsible for designing the coins rendered this into a female personification of the concept. Through the course of the nineteenth century, females were making headway in their rights as both individuals and as a group. During this period, the United States Mint continued to design and strike coins with allegorical images of women, essentially using them as the face of monetary sovereignty. This talk discusses the paradox of women as an allegory and as a marginalized, second-class group.

        Speaker: Mary N. Lannin (American Numismatic Society)
      • 84
        Trading Dollars: International Monetary Conferences and American Monetary Politics

        The United States issued the Trade Dollar between 1873 and 1885. It became increasingly more competitive in global trade during this period. Congress intended for the new coin to replace the silver dollar, which it demonetized in 1873, as American merchants’ coin of choice while trading in East Asia. Most Trade Dollars, however, circulated domestically. Historians of American money and the state seldom study connections between the Trade Dollar, demonetization, and American participation in the Paris monetary conferences (1868 - 1892). This paper places high global negotiations and empire-building in context with domestic politics and money’s materiality. It argues that global competition to control silver flows met its match in American monetary politics of the late nineteenth century. This collision of business interests and social aspirations created the largest political movement related to the American money question, leaving hopes for a multi-national monetary system unfulfilled until establishment of the Eurozone.

        Speaker: Jonah Estess (American University)
    • 3:30 PM
      Coffee break
    • RT 3 - PUBLISHING CATALOGUES IN MEDIEVAL NUMISMATICS: BEST PRACTICE IN THE INTERNET AGE Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Elina Screen

      The publication of illustrated coin catalogues making reliable data available to scholars has advanced the study of numismatics enormously. Since the early twentieth century, the printed sylloge format pioneered by the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, including detailed catalogue entries and photographs of every coin, has been especially important in enabling die-studies. In today’s digital age, internet databases and online catalogues provide new ways to make large collections of coins available. Both approaches have advantages and constraints. Print catalogues are expensive to produce and harder to update but provide a stable version of record. Online databases can be updated more flexibly, but changing technology can make it hard to maintain access over time, and the quality of the data and images can depend on the subject expertise of those inputting the data (finder-submitted metal detector finds, for example). Hybrid publication, providing additional online materials alongside printed catalogues, also has its challenges. This round table, sponsored by the Medieval European Coinage project, will discuss best practice to ensure reliable catalogue data is available in stable, accessible and sustainable ways today and in the future. Contributors from different publication projects will be invited to speak for 5 minutes on challenges, opportunities and future paths of catalogue publication in the digital age (using a maximum of 3 powerpoint slides to support their presentation), to generate new perspectives on familiar problems and to share ideas and practices, and to stimulate wider discussion. Confirmed contributors include Dr Rory Naismith (Sylloge of the Coins of the British Isles project) and Dr Elina Screen (Medieval European Coinage project). Other leading digital and print numismatic publication and database projects will be approached to contribute. This session will be of interest to all users of online and print catalogues as well as those involved in publishing coin collections.

      Further projects will be approached, including the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum and leading database projects, in order to have approx. 5 short presentations with different perspectives, followed by a general discussion.

      List of panelists:
      Rory Naismith
      Elina Screen
      Mateusz Bogucki
      Adrian Popescu

      Convener: Elina Screen (Fitzwilliam Museum)
      • 85
        Publishing catalogues in medieval numismatics: best practice in the internet age
        Speaker: Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 86
        Publishing catalogues in medieval numismatics: best practice in the internet age
        Speaker: Elina Screen (Fitzwilliam Museum)
      • 87
        Publishing catalogues in medieval numismatics: best practice in the internet age
        Speaker: Mateusz Bogucki (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Acady of Sciences / Commision of Numismatic Studies Polish Academy of Sciences)
      • 88
        Publishing catalogues in medieval numismatics: best practice in the internet age
        Speaker: Adrian Popescu (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge)
    • S04. GREECE 4. IBERIAN PENINSULA AND GALLIA: 4. GREECE 4. IBERIAN PENINSULA AND GALLIA Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Elena Moreno Pulido (Universidad de Cádiz)
      • 89
        A New Catalogue for the Ancient Iberian Coinages: monedaiberica.org

        The website monedaiberica.org offers a new complete catalogue of the ancient coinages of the Iberian Peninsula and the south of France struck between the 6th and 1st centuries BC. The new project has been developed within the framework of the international ARCH project (Ancient Coinages as Related Cultural Heritage) in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the Bibliothèque nationale de France. The catalogue organizes the coin series from more than 200 mints, including 4,000 types from the Greek, Punic, Iberian, Celtiberian, Vasconian and Lusitanian cultures. The project collects for research purposes over 100,000 coins with images from museums, auctions and private collections. The website links different international projects. The contents are managed by Dédalo/Numisdata, a research and publishing open-source system based on web standards. This database enables promotes work in collaborative environments, and offers powerful resources for managing languages, users and projects.

        Speakers: Alejandro Peña, Francisco Onielfa, Manuel Gozalbez, Pere Pau Ripollès (Universitat de València )
      • 90
        An example of monetisation of SW Hispania during the Republican period: Mesas do Castelinho (Portugal)

        Since the mid-20th century, the Mesas do Castelinho has been a point of reference in the archaeological mapping of southern Portugal. It was occupied at an early date, and its heyday coincided with the Roman presence in these territories between the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, when it controlled routes connecting the Algarve with Alentejo, taking advantage of the course of the Guadiana and the passes through the Serra do Caldeirão. The excavations have recovered many coins consistent with the profile of the rest of the archaeological material recovered there.
        Roman denarii and asses are complemented by bronze coinage from Murtilis, as well as from other mints in the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Gadir) and the Guadalquivir valley (Castulo). A group of monetiform leads from Ossonoba is made outstanding by its size and distance from their centre of issue; there are moreover some uncertain issues possibly of a local origin.

        Speakers: Amilcar Guerra, Bartolomé Mora Serrano (University of Málaga ), Carlos Fabião, Susana Estrela
      • 91
        The New Baetican Lead Tokens of Eucleratus

        We present a previously unpublished issue of "Baetican Lead Tokens". They were found at Linares, Bailén, Jaén and, in short, Andalusia (Spain). The uniface and the lead issue was "struck" by Eucleratus. It should not necessarily be related to mining activity. According to epigraphic sources, Eucleratus is a Greek cognomen documented just once in Asia, specifically in Balat (Miletus) in a funerary inscription bearing the name Lucius Ambeivius Eucleratus (EDCS 29601640). In summary, I discuss the meaning of the new lead issue, presenting a formal description (• EE • EVCLERATVS) and possible interpretation of the new lead tokens of Eucleratus.

        Speaker: David Martínez Chico (Universitat de València)
      • 92
        The first chalkos of Greek Marseille

        A small group of some twenty identical bronze coins with a “sacrificial bull” reverse come from a Hellenistic wreck of the early 3rd century B.C. found off La Tour Fondue at the tip of the Giens peninsula, Var, France. Despite their unmistakable Massaliot appearance and excellent style, these early pieces differ in a number of ways from the usual series. By considering also other coins of this type, from excavations at Olbia, finds from England, and others of various origin, we hope to demonstrated that the issue was the first chalkos struck by Massalia. It next went on to serve as a model for cast potins issued in England (the Kentish Primary Series, or “Thurrock type”), as well as in a number of places in Gaul.

        Speakers: Clive Stannard (Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick), Jean-Albert Chevillon (Groupe Numismatique du Comtat et de Provence )
    • S23. ANTIQUITY 3. THE ISSUE OF AUTHORITY ON TOKENS OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN: ANTIQUITY 3. THE ISSUE OF AUTHORITY ON TOKENS OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Clare Rowan

      Ancient token studies have witnessed a resurgence in recent years, seen most vividly with 'Tokens: Culture, Connections, Communities' (ed. Crisà, Gkikaki & Rowan), 'Tokens, Value and Identity', (ed. Crisà), as well as the ongoing publication of unpublished material across Europe.
      In spite of recent advances, the issue of who was responsible for the issuing of tokens, and how this authority was (or was not) communicated on these objects remains relatively unexplored. This session therefore focuses on the issue of authority in relation to tokens from Rome and Athens. Two papers focus on tokens from Athens, with Gkikaki presenting Hellenistic tokens from the Agora and Karra discussing a group of tokens with numeric values from a residential quarter to the immediate southeast of the Acropolis. The other two papers will focus on the Roman Empire, with Rowan focused on the lead tokens of Rome and Ostia, and Mondello the bronze and brass tokens from late antique Rome.
      These papers will explore the issue of authority on tokens, and what this might reveal about the function of these enigmatic artefacts. Questions addressed by the session include: how was authority communicated on tokens, and how did this differ from official coinage? What does the absence of an authority reveal about the operation of tokens in antiquity? What types of authority can we identify? To what extent does the communication of authority align with the creation or communication of identity? How might tokens become an official channel of expression for cult associations or civic corporations? In what ways did tokens contribute to the roles of individuals, thereby imitating the structures of the state? How did the distribution and circulation of tokens create bonds between authority and users? The session will shed further light on the historic and numismatic significance of these often overlooked objects.

      Convener: Clare Rowan (University of Warwick)
      • 93
        Tokens in the Athenian Agora: negotiating authority in the Hellenistic Society

        The tokens excavated in the Athenian Agora constitute a unique case of more than 300 types and approx. 1,400 specimens, of which the find spots can be plotted against the thriving political and administrative centre of Classical and Hellenistic Athens. The issue of authority – who was responsible for the issuing of tokens – has been the subject of debate between scholars. That Athenian tokens were issued by the polis, and were employed in the workings of the government is a fact which cannot be denied. On the other hand, there is plentiful evidence which points in the direction of privately issued tokens. Cult associations and civic corporations, as well as members of such associations, issued tokens and sponsored their distribution, and the associated benefits on a number of occasions. The sharing of tokens helped create and sustain strong bonds among their members.

        Speaker: Mairi Gkikaki (University of Warwick)
      • 94
        [⊝ not streamed] A group of lead tokens with numeric signs from the Late Hellenistic Athens: functions and authority

        During the excavation for the construction of the Acropolis Museum, to the immediate southeast of the Acropolis, an important group of lead tokens was found inside a cistern containing debris from a cleanup operation of the area, after Sulla΄s invasion in 86 BC. It consists of 19 tokens, most of which bear an animal design in addition to a numerical sign, which could equally denote obols or numbers for any unit.
        This contribution examines the possible functions of these tokens, their relation to Athenian coinage, as well as the authority who could have issued them, as their special characteristics in combination with the specific context in which they were found, suggest that they were used rather as private than administrative devices – a frame of use well attested for Roman tesserae but not yet confirmed for Hellenistic Athens.

        Speaker: Irini Karra (Acropolis Museum)
      • 95
        Criptic, Visual and Lettered Communications of Authority on Roman Lead Tokens

        It is clear from the find spots, designs and differing styles of lead tokens in Rome and Ostia that these were objects produced by a variety of different groups within the region. This paper explores the ways in which authority was (or was not) communicated on these issues, and the significance of this for our understanding of the use context of these pieces. Tokens name authorities in full, express shared authority (e.g. between an emperor and magistrate), use enigmatic abbreviations of names, and perhaps also utilise other emblems of identity, e.g. designs associated with personal seals. These differing forms of expression reflect the varied use contexts of tokens, from relatively large events to small communities in which everyone knew each other. The ways in which authority was expressed communicated the prestige of token issuers, and, in the case of the more enigmatic expressions, served to bind a particular community together.

        Speaker: Clare Rowan (University of Warwick)
      • 96
        [⊝ not streamed] I tokens ‘VOTA PVBLICA’ della Roma tardoantica: Autorità, Produzione e Circolazione

        In una nota monografia del 1937, A. Alföldi analizzò una speciale categoria di tokens tardoantichi che combinano i busti degli imperatori romani da Diocleziano a Valentiano II con iconografie religiose egiziane ed isiache, accompagnate dalla legenda ‘Vota Publica’. Mentre singoli gruppi o nuovi ritrovamenti riguardanti questo materiale sono stati discussi in contributi occasionali, l’analisi globale di questa serie enigmatica non ha registrato finora nessun progresso significativo. Questo contributo intende investigare il problema dell’autorità che si cela dietro l’emissione dei tokens ‘Vota Publica’, nonché il modo in cui, da tale autorità, dipesero i modelli di produzione dei tokens qui considerati. Oggetto di disamina saranno altresì alcuni noti die-links individuati tra tali tokens e alcune serie monetali romane, al fine di chiarire la relazione tra le due categorie di manufatti.
        Mediante un approccio incentrato sull’autorità, questo contributo affronterà questioni legate alla produzione, cronologia e circolazione dei tokens ‘Vota Publica’ nella tarda antichità.

        Speaker: Cristian Mondello (University of Warwick)
    • S38. ROME 4. ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE 1 Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Liesbeth Claes (Leiden University)
      • 97
        [⊝ not streamed] The Career of Cornutus Tertullus and the Significance of Diana/Artemis on Nerva's Coinage

        Nerva's coinage displays interest in Diana/Artemis. The goddess appears on denarii of December 96 CE, struck at Rome; the Temple of Artemis at Perge appears on cistophori of 97 CE, struck at Rome for circulation in the province of Asia. The depiction of the Pamphylian temple especially puzzles scholars, as the coins circulated in a different province. I argue that the depictions on Nerva's coinage are linked with the emperor's promotion of the career of Cornutus Tertullus of Perge, the friend of Pliny with whom he became prefect of the Treasury of Saturn in early 98 CE. Cornutus Tertullus was married to Plancia Magna, priestess of Artemis at Perge, and may have been an (adopted) Plancius himself; the Plancii of Perge were especially devoted to the cult of Artemis. Diana on the denarii resembles the cult statue of the Temple of Diana Planciana in Rome, which bears the family's eponym.

        Speaker: Nathan Elkins (American Numismatic Society )
      • 98
        Portraits of Trajanic Women on Roman Provincial Coins

        It is usually assumed that when a new portrait model was introduced at Rome, it would be sent to the provinces for copying. Provincial coin portraits of Plotina, Matidia and Marciana, the three Trajanic women who appeared on imperial coinage, suggest otherwise. While these women each had one canonical portrait type at Rome, these appear on only about half of their types on+ provincial coins, with others depicting these women instead using models of Flavian women. The Trajanic women also appear on a significantly smaller percentage of provincial coins during Trajan’s reign than the Flavians or Sabina in their respective administrations. These data suggest that models of Trajanic women’s portraits were not sent to the provinces thoroughly or consistently. This runs counter to the traditional model of portrait type dissemination, which assumes a static process of each new official model being automatically introduced to the provinces for coin and statuary production.

        Speaker: Fae Amiro (University of Toronto Mississauga )
      • 99
        A reconsideration of an aureus in the name of Plotina Aug Divi from Campana's collection

        An aureus in the name of Plotina Avg Divi with the reverse VESTA TRAIANI PARTHICI from Marquis Giampietro Campana’s collection is re-examined here.
        The coin’s authenticity, supported by various scholars including P. L. Strack and H. Mattingly, was deemed unlikely in the latest edition of RIC II2, 3, especially in connection with other issues of Plotina from the Hadrianic period. Further stylistic and historical considerations, however, allow us to relate the aureus to the very latest issues of Trajan, thus confirming its authenticity.

        Speaker: Maria Cristina Molinari (Musei Capitolini/Medagliere )
      • 100
        [⊝ not streamed] Divus Traianus Augustus Parthicus Pater

        This paper presents new research on two rare types of Roman imperial coins issued early in Hadrian’s reign, celebrating the emperor’s adoptive father.
        The first part of the talk provides an update on the author’s study of the denarius type RIC II2.3, no. 2963 (obv. bust of Trajan, rev. Hadrian sacrificing at an altar), which was published in vol. 178 of NC (2018). This is the only signed issue of restored denarii produced under Hadrian.
        In the second part of the paper, a die-study of the sestertii RIC II2.3, nos 104–105 will be presented. This type features the deified Trajan enthroned to the left on the reverse: it is one of very few full-length depictions of Divus Traianus seen on imperial coins. The type will be discussed in its iconographic, historical and archaeological contexts, with a special focus on current research on the temple of the deified Trajan.

        Speaker: Bernhard Woytek (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
    • S52. ROME 18. FINDS AND CIRCULATION 5 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Ludovic Trommenschlager (Département Monnaies, Médailles Et Antiques Bnf)
      • 101
        The Beaurains (Arras) hoard: 100 years later

        This paper offers an update on the famous Beaurains hoard, found in Northern France exactly a hundred years ago. Dating to the beginning of the 4th century, the hoard is one of the most important coin finds of Late Antiquity, particularly because of spectacular gold medallions it contained. It was partly dispersedd on the very evening of its discovery and scholars have been trying to put it back together ever since. The quest goes on as new specimens from the hoard regularly appear on the market, making it possible to complete the catalog. As for the physical preservation, parts of the hoard are kept in museums all over the world, and significant acquisitions have been made recently by French institutions.

        Speaker: Vincent Drost (Ecole nationale supérieure des sciences de l'information et des bibliothèques)
      • 102
        Uses and users of gold coins in civitas Aeduorum during the Roman Empire

        While there are several syntheses discussing the uses and users of Roman gold coins in Gaul, we propose to focus here on a single case study dedicated to the civitas Aeduorum. This area has the advantage of having yielded a large corpus of more than 100 single gold finds along with at least 13 hoards, composed exclusively of gold. The corpus covers the period from the late 1st century BC until the late 5th century AD. Based on several representative examples we will analyse the diversity of practices linked to these coins (donativum, monetary jewellery, losses, offerings, etc.). We will focus also on archaeological context of these finds which provide many elements of interpretation. All of this data will help us better understand the question of the uses and users of gold coins in a western city during the Roman period.

        Speaker: Kévin Charrier (École Pratique des Hautes Études / UMR 8210 ANHIMA )
      • 103
        [⊝ not streamed] Two silver ingots from the mid-4th century

        The National Museum of Slovenia has in its collection two silver ingots from the mid-4th century, unfortunately, without information about their context of discovery. The ingots are in the shape of a double axe-head, which is the commonest form of Late Roman silver ingots. Their weight corresponds to that of a Roman pound. Both have on them a stamped portrait of the Roman Emperor Constantius II dated to 350–351. In addition to the portrait, one of the ingots has a punched POLIPI inscription and the other two stamped inscriptions that read EOR NKA and EOPTOC / NKA. The XRF analyses have confirmed a 96–98% purity of silver known to have been used in the silver ingot production. Similar ingots were fairly common in the 4th century, out of this group, the paper focuses on the extremely rare examples stamped with imperial portraits.

        Speaker: Alenka Miškec (National museum of Slovenia)
      • 104
        The underwater coin deposit of Gran Carro, in Lake Bolsena

        The Gran Carro settlement is known for the exceptional conservation of the remains on the bottom of Lake Bolsena. It has been the subject of research since 1959, but only recently has it been possible to prove that it includes three sectors: the currently submerged area, which contains the remains of pile-dwellings (First Iron Age, late 10th-9th century BC); the so-called Aiola, a wide elliptical structure formed of rough stones, interpreted provisionally as an outdoor ritual site (Late Bronze Age, 11th century BC); and an area on dry land (Middle Bronze Age, facies of Grotta Nuova).
        Since 2020, underwater investigations have led to the discovery of dozens of Late Roman coins and a few bronze objects in an area of this site between the Aiola and the modern shore. The paper discusses the coin finds and examines the nature of the deposit.

        Speakers: Barbara Barbaro (Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la Provincia di Viterbo e per l’Etruria meridionale), Samuele Ranucci
    • S66. MIDDLE AGES 4. MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC COINAGE Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Convener: Dorota Malarczyk (The National Museum in Krakow )
      • 105
        Authorities on the Islamic coinage of the Eastern Iranian territories (8th-11th centuries)

        The period between the Abbasid revolution (c.120s/c.740s) and the battle of Dandanqan (431/1040) is an extremely complex one for the Islamic regions of the eastern Iranian areas (Zābulistān, Kābulistān, Sīstān, and Khurāsān). A detailed analysis of the monetary history of these regions is essential for understanding the changes these territories underwent. Preliminary results of a historical analysis of the coinages of the dynasties ruling over the area in this period will be presented, with a focus on the figures and authorities appearing on coins. These figures reflect the political transformation (and fragmentation) of the area from the beginning of the Abbasid period to the Turkic period and could give important information on the functioning of mints and administrative organization as well.

        Speaker: Arturo Annucci (Università di Napoli L'Orientale )
      • 106
        Mine, residence, or home - the meaning of "ma'din amîr al-mu'minîn" on Umayyad coins

        The original understanding of the term ma'din amîr al-mu'minîn was that of a mine providing gold for caliphal dinars. But the appearance of the expression on copper coins, especially as an epithet following the mint name al-Madîna has challenged this interpretation and numerous alternatives with references to the Arabic lexicography offering other meanings were discussed over more than the last thirty years without arriving at a common consensus. Apart from linguistic considerations the present paper will follow a different approach of historical contextualisation of the mintage years 89, 91, 92 and 105 H. to arrive at an understanding of the term.

        Speaker: Lutz Ilisch (Forschungsstelle für Islamische Numismatik, Tübingen )
      • 107
        Sicily and al-Andalus: trade relationships and monetary circulation in the XIth century

        Recent findings show that Sicilian coins are abundant in several hoards recovered on the Iberian Peninsula, dated to the 11th century. These Sicilian coins are Fāṭimid issues struck in the mint of Palermo when the island was no longer under direct Fāṭimid control but under the rule of the Kalbid dynasty. Most of these coins are half and quarter dirhams and quarter dinar fractions, even though the dirhams and dinars were the currency most used in Fāṭimid Empire. This paper analyzes the impact of this foreign currency on al-Andalus, its integration into the Andalusian monetary circulation and the intensity of this phenomenon, its chronology, the commercial relations between Sicily and Iberian Peninsula in the 11th century, and finally, the role of Sicily as a Mediterranean commercial centre.

        Speaker: Carolina Doménech-Belda (University of Alicante )
      • 108
        Once more into the Broach: The Mamluk Coins from Codrington, JRASBB, 1881-82

        In 1882 a hoard of 448 gold dinars and fragments, and approximately 1200 silver dirhams and fragments was found in Bharuch, India. Prior to dispersal, these coins were studied by Codrington who published a partial catalogue. Most of these coins were from the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and Syria, and many were subsequently incorporated into the foundational work of Mamluk numismatics, Paul Balog’s Coinage of the Mamluk Sultans in Egypt and Syria (1964). In the 140 years since Codrington’s article and the many decades since Balog’s book appeared, our knowledge of Mamluk numismatics has expanded tremendously. In this paper I reexamine these coins in light of this development by providing some new identifications, corrections to Balog’s transfer of this data into his corpus, the incorporation of this evidence into an updated understanding of the metrology of Mamluk precious metal coinage, and an updated catalog list with links to modern works.

        Speaker: Warren Schultz (DePaul University, Chicago)
    • S82. MODERN TIMES 5. CONTEMPORARY COINS & NOTES (19TH-21ST CENTURIES) Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Jesse Kraft (American Numismatic Society)
      • 109
        Making Small Change without a Mint: the Cut Coins of the French West Indies (late 18th c.-early 19th c.)

        At the end of the 18th century, the shortage of small change in the Caribbean Islands was such that the local authorities decided on their own initiative to make coins themselves. In the absence of local mints a practical solution was adopted and spread rapidly in these small territories, whatever the empire they were attached to. The solution was to cut into smaller pieces the large silver coins then available: the Hispanic-American pieces of eight. It appears from recent studies that the initiative was French, more precisely, from the Grenadine islands. Even the name moco, used in the early 19th century to describe these cut coins, comes from Guadeloupe, and does not have the same meaning attributed to it in the past. The success of the mocos was revealed notably because of their immediate falsification which could even lead to the production of “false reals” for collectors in Paris during the Universal Expositions.

        Speaker: Jérôme Jambu (Université de Lille )
      • 110
        Infringing Holland gold ducats in the Russian Empire

        The pseudo-Netherlands chervonets of the Imperial Cabinet was minted in the Russian Empire between 1770 and 1867. Intended primarily for internal circulation it became the official means of payment in the Russian Empire in 1773 on the initiative of Count Z.G. Chernyshev, the Belarusian Governor-General. The overvalued rate of the unauthorized chervonets madei of cabinet gold in the Dutch appearance was supported by mandatory acceptance into government payments at a price of 3 roubles apiece. The key question for research s the question “What is to be the rate of gold «Holland» ducats to silver?” Cankrin's reform was used to a large extent for the hidden devaluation of the gold chervonets.
        The present study was carried out using a large number of documents from the archives of St. Petersburg, Minsk and Vilnius.

        Speaker: Ivan Sintchouk (Independent Researcher)
      • 111
        Cuban complementary notes

        Cuban 'notas complementarias' are certificates awarded to citizens in recognition of their contribution to State activity through voluntary work and payments to state organisations. This paper looks at their design and function within the Cuban economy, suggesting that their introduction and aesthetic is inspired by revolutionary scrip money and bonds issued in the 1950s.

        Speakers: Tom Hockenhull (British Museum), Zoreidi Solorzano Arias (Numismatic Museum, Havana)
    • 7:00 PM
      Opening of the special exhibition „The Prudent and the Romantic. 100 years of the Department of Coins and Medals” at the National Museum in Warsaw National Museum Warsaw

      National Museum Warsaw

      Jerozolimskie Av. 3 (https://www.mnw.art.pl)

      note: admission with invitation

    • RT 4 - TOWARDS A NEW PARADIGM FOR COIN CIRCULATION WITHIN THE ROMAN EMPIRE Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Liesbeth Claes

      The purpose of this round table is to elaborate on the various factors behind coin circulation patterns in order to constitute a new paradigm which can be integrated into the currently accepted model of coin circulation within the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 235).
      No direct evidence has survived to testify the decision-making processes of the Roman imperial authorities regarding coin production or distribution. According to the consensus reached by extrapolating conclusions from small sets of coin hoard data, the Roman Empire minted coins primarily to pay Roman troops stationed at the frontiers. In order to acquire coins to pay taxes to Rome, inhabitants of rural and urban regions sold wares and provided services to the army. According to this deductive model, presented by Hopkins in 1980, Roman coins which entered circulation returned as taxes in Rome. This resulted in homogeneous coin pools in the military and non-military provinces. Although this view has been firmly entrenched in the scholarly debate and followed in numerous handbooks, there is remarkably little empirical evidence to support it. Moreover, more recent studies, such as Howgego 1994, van Heesch 2009, Kemmers 2006 and Hellings 2016, have even demonstrated that other factors in Roman coin circulation have to be taken into account as well.
      This round table will bring together a number of speakers to discuss various factors behind coin distribution and transfers, from an understanding of the coins’ particular aspects such as metal, denomination and iconography. In the plenary discussion, these aspects can be related to patterns of coin circulation within the Roman Empire, opening a debate on the distinctive (regional) agencies behind these patterns, the differences in coin patterns between the east and west, and finally, the best methodological tools to analyse coin circulation patterns.

      List of palelists:
      Liesbeth Claes
      Andrew Brown
      Alessandro Bona
      Andrea Casoli
      Johan van Heesch
      Suzanne Frey-Kupper
      Markus Peter

      Convener: Liesbeth Claes (Leiden University)
      • 112
        Towards a new paradigm for coin circulation within the Roman Empire - Introduction to the round table
        Speaker: Liesbeth Claes (Leiden University)
      • 113
        An Island of Circulation: Coinage in Roman Britain
        Speaker: Andrew Brown (British Museum / Portable Antiquities Scheme)
      • 114
        Coin circulation in Milan between the first and the second century AD: new data from archaeological contexts
        Speaker: Alessandro Bona (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart)
      • 115
        Circulation patterns south vs. north of the Alps in Switzerland
        Speaker: Andrea Casoli (Coin Cabinet Historische Museum Basel)
    • S05. GREECE 5. ITALY – SICILY 1 Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Mariangela Puglisi (Università di Messina)
      • 116
        The early incuse coinage of Croton

        The ancient polis of Croton, a colony founded by Achaeans in Bruttium, exerted influence over a vast area in southern Italy from the end of the 6th to about the middle of the 5th century BC. Towards the end of the 5th century BC, the power structures in the region reorganized and the poleis of Taranto, Thurium and Heraclea gained influence. At the same time, with the strengthening of Dionysius I of Syracuse on the one hand and Lucanians on the other, further sources of conflict arose. The Crotoniates adapted to the political power and the resulting economic changes, which were also reflected in the monetary evidence at the end of the 5th/ beginning of the 4th century BC. Incorporating the historical background, this study attempts to examine the early incuse coinage of Croton and its images.

        Speaker: Stefanie Baars (Münzkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz )
      • 117
        The Coinage of Thurium and its Contexts – a Die Study

        Thurium is one of the most important Greek colonies in Magna Graecia, both because of its connections to other cities and innovative coinage. However, the current arrangement and knowledge of Thurian coins has not yet reached a level that is comparable to other cities of similar importance. This oversight has repercussions for our understanding of the politics and economy of Magna Graecia.

        This paper – an outcome of more than four years of studies made within a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - addresses the question of how the potential uses of an extensive die-study in the 21st century.

        Speaker: Marc Philipp Wahl ( Vienna University, Department of Numismatics and Monetary History )
      • 118
        Coin finds from ancient Medma, today Rosarno (RC, Italy)

        The identification of the polis of Medma in the current Rosarno area was made in the 20th century, when the control activity over archaeological finds started to be particularly intense. Finds of ancient coins date back to the 19th century and have contributed to the most important numismatic collections in Southern Italy and across Europe as well. Recent studies identified the functions of the areas of the city and outlined its layout, as well as the sacred areas and the necropolis. The systematic analysis of numismatic finds in three Calabrian museums - Reggio Calabria, Rosarno and Vibo Valentia – makes it possible to analyse absence and presence of ancient mints in an attempt to search for information about the monetary circulation in a polis which ancient sources show had a port, in order to structure a research base useful for an up-to-date archaeological map.

        Speaker: Giorgia Gargano (Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la città metropolitana di Reggio Calabria e la provincia di Vibo Valentia )
      • 119
        Coin circulation in Lipari (Sicily) from the Greek to the Roman times

        The aim of this work is to study the coin circulation of the island of Lipari off the coast of Sicily (Italy). Taking into consideration the numismatic evidence from archaeological excavation campaigns on the site of interest, we focus on the period spanning the Greek and the Roman age.
        Although the mint activity of Lipari in the Greek period has been widely examined by many researchers, this will be the first time to make an overview of the data at hand.
        The analysis will be conducted mainly of coins currently held in the Luigi Bernabò Brea Archaeological Museum.
        Considering the historical background, the following aspects will be studied: coin circulation (continuity or interruption); more common coins; recorded origins of the coins (urban context, necropolis, sanctuary…).

        Speaker: Ludovica Di Masi (University of Messina)
    • S19. GREECE 19. PTOLEMAIC COINAGE Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Convener: Julien Olivier (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
      • 120
        The Monetary System of Cleopatra VII on the light of Hellenistic and Roman Traditions

        The reign of Cleopatra VII, essentially told from the point of view of the victor, has certainly been the subject of a myriad studies but has not been subjected to a complete numismatic analysis. The coins remain, however, the most tangible sources, given the scarcity of documentary data and the biased nature of literary sources. Thirteen cities minted coins for Cleopatra and/or in her effigy; an iconographic analysis (choice of portraits/types according to metal and context) coupled with a technical study (metrology/die study) reveal the aims and logic behind each issue and the means the sovereign employed to govern her kingdom. The insertion of these coins into the broader field of Hellenistic and Roman female coinage (3rd c. B.C. - 1st c. A.D.), demonstrates the respective influences/divergences and the way women appear on coins over the centuries, as legitimizing or individualized figures.

        Speaker: Éphéline Bernaer-Babin (Université de Montréal )
      • 121
        A Metrological Survey of Ptolemaic Bronze Coins

        A synthesis of results and methods is presented of five quantitative studies of Ptolemaic bronze coins produced at many mints over most of the duration of the empire. The studies are of weights of over 10,000 coins, hundreds of catalogued types, in diverse public collections and reference works as well as some records from trade. A method evolved for these studies may be applied to other bronze coinages. The results add to our understanding of the minting practices and weight standards evolved in different parts of the Ptolemaic empire. This survey lends support to a modern view of the bronze coinage series and also persuasively points to some new ideas about Ptolemaic bronze coinage. Unexpected discoveries exposed by quantitative metrology include several coin denominations as well as revised dating of a major coinage reform and its connection to an allied kingdom's adoption of the Ptolemaic monetary system.

        Speaker: Daniel Wolf (Independent Researcher)
      • 122
        "Put money in thy purse": the circulation of the ptolemaic bronze coins in the Peloponnese

        The presence of Ptolemy III bronze coins in the Peloponnese during the 3rd-1st century BCE is well-known. These coins were minted by the Egyptian king and financed Cleomenes III, king of Sparta. Moving from the evidence of the unpublished hoard found in 1936 at Kato Kleitoria, near Tripolis, Arcadia (IGCH 184), this paper will analyze this peculiar phenomenon, its occurrence in different archeological contexts across the Peloponnese and its relationship to other local issues.

        Speaker: Alessandro Cavagna (State University of Milan )
      • 123
        Ptolemaic Coins in Southwestern Asia Minor: New Attributions and Suggestions

        The circulation of Ptolemaic coins in Asia Minor, particularly in southwestern Asia Minor, where the political hegemony was mainly established, has never been studied in detail. In addition to the published material, new numismatic data, both from archeological excavations and museum collections which make such a study possible, offer new evidence for making new attributions as well as for revisiting the existing ones. The study of this new data makes it possible to propose new mint attributions for some coin issues previously described as “Uncertain mint(s)”. Moreover, the circulation of Ptolemaic coins in the region adds to our understanding of the rise and the decline of the political hegemony. This study is mainly based on Ptolemaic coins from excavations and museums in Caria and Lycia.

        Speaker: Ömer Tatar (Akdeniz University, Department of History )
    • S32. CELTIC COINS 1. CELTIC COINS IN CENTRAL EUROPE Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: David Wigg-Wolf (Römisch-Germansiche Kommission)
      • 124
        The Story of the Athena Alkidemos Coin Type. Greek Goddess on the Road to Bohemia

        Gold coinage in the Amber Road corridor, which is the area between southern Silesia and the Austrian Danube valley, is represented by the Athena Alkidemos type from the half of 3rd to the half of 2nd century BC. The vigorous development of lowland settlement centres marked by a high level of commodity production and trade indicates an above‐standard position of this region within Central Europe. The extensive coin production in the Amber Road corridor was a strong impulse for the development of coinage in Bohemia. A characteristic manifestation of this influence is the adoption by Celtic elites in Bohemia of the depiction of Athena’s head and the standing figure of Athena Alkidemos on their own coinage. The next development is the intensive development in the Stradonice oppidum in Bohemia of coinage of gold mussel types derived from the latest iconographically deteriorated Bohemian variants of the Athena Alkidemos type series.

        Speaker: Tomáš Smělý (ABALON s.r.o)
      • 125
        Celtic Coins from The Central Settlement of Haselbach (PB Korneuburg, NÖ)

        The study of Celtic coin production in the Amber Road corridor is one of the most important tasks addressed by archaeology and numismatics. At least six La Tène C central sites are known nowadays in the Danube zone of Lower Austria which yielded thousands upon thousands of such coins. Unfortunately, only a small fraction has been published so far. The settlement of Haselbach has been investigated for five years now. A collection of over 400 coins is available from this site to date, deriving (in a small proportion) from excavation and from a metal detector survey, both official and private. The coin assemblage from Haselbach adds significantly to our knowledge of the 3rd and 2nd century BC coinage.

        Speaker: Jiří Militký (National Museum, Prague, )
      • 126
        Celtic gold in Brandenburg - an unexpected find of 41 rainbow cups

        In the summer of 2017 a volunteer archaeologist investigating a field in Brandenburg unearthed a special find. This discovery was followed by a systematic investigation by archaeologists from the Brandenburg State Heritage Management and Archaeological State Museum (BLDAM) which continued until 2018 recovering a total of 41 “plain rainbow cup coins” (glatte Regenbogenschüsselchen). This is the largest Celtic gold find in Brandenburg and the second largest ever hoard find of plain rainbow cups of Kellner V A, in an extremely rare association with full and quarter staters of V A type recorded outside the normal distribution area of rainbow cups in general and plain rainbow cups in particular. In addition to die studies, metal analyses were carried out which, despite the lack of motifs, could also allow unexpected conclusions to be drawn about the coins. New and partly unpublished results will be presented.

        Speaker: Marjanko Pilekic (Münzkabinett, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha)
      • 127
        The celtic small silver coinage of the Upper Danube. A case of early monetization?

        As a Celtic counterpart of the Greek obol, small silver coins occur in southern Germany, the Czech Republic and Austria. The main occurrence in phase La Tène D1 (150-75 BC) correlates with the emergence of oppidum settlements. So far research has focused on the publication of single and hoard finds, and also coins from settlements in order to broaden the material base. Now for the first time this type of coinage is to be recorded systematically within the framework of a dissertation. While larger Celtic currencies continue to raise the question of the extent to which they are money, there is sufficient evidence to make an argument for an early phase of monetarization based on small silver. This is particularly interesting, as there are proto-urban phases in the study area with the emergence of small silver, which ended with the abandonment of oppida. This would give examples that contradict the idea of monetarization as a gradual process.

        Speaker: Markus Möller (Römisch-Germanische-Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts )
    • S53. ROME 19. FINDS AND USE – BARBARICUM 1 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Arkadiusz Dymowski (Independent Researcher)
      • 128
        Kalkriese and Roman Army Pay

        Regardless of the exact dating of the battle fought at Kalkriese, this findspot is our best insight into Roman army pay of the early Imperial period. As there are no underlying layers of prior monetary usage in the region, and the coin supply came to a sudden halt after the Roman troops left, the insight gained into the legionaries’ purses is unique. Additionally, the composition of the coin finds is drastically different from other military findspots in Germany, with higher percentages of precious metal coins and countermarked Aes coinage. An ongoing research project aims to re-examine all the coins found at Kalkriese and to establish the findspot as a benchmark for further analysis of coin supply within the Roman army in the early Imperial period. This paper will present some of the possibilities the coins found at Kalkriese offer for our understanding of this matter.

        Speaker: Max Resch (Department for Numismatics and Monetary History, University of Vienna )
      • 129
        From the sestertii to the solidi, the coinage of Hadrian’s Wall and Britannia’s northern frontier.

        This paper presents the results of my PhD research which examines the numismatic evidence from the northern frontier of Roman Britain. This analysis is the result of the creation of a database containing detailed records for c.38,000 Roman coins found in northern England and southern Scotland. Previous studies have been largely restricted to discussions of coins from the military communities based along Hadrian’s Wall itself rather than seeking to encompass a broader frontier zone. The study area of this research has included the Wall itself but also its wider setting by covering southern Scotland and northern England. This broad geographic area has allowed the examination of the usage of coinage not just amongst the military communities along the Wall but differences in usage between the military and non-military communities inhabiting the frontier and between those living beyond and behind the Wall.

        Speaker: Douglas Carr (Newcastle University )
      • 130
        Ancient Coins East of the Danube

        The systematic research on the coin finds from the Hungarian Barbaricum, i.e. the region to the east of the Danube, was initiated with the adoption of the AFE-RGK database. The metal detector finds and major excavations carried out over the last decades have considerably increased the number of coin finds in Hungary. The exciting new material makes it possible to revise the previously published data and to outline new regional trends across the area in question. One of the most interesting topics is the role of the Devil's Dykes and the military in the numismatic history of this territory. The paper aims to summarize the results of the last years of research.

        Speaker: Lajos Juhász (Eötvös Loránd Unviersity)
      • 131
        Late Roman Gold Coinage (275-498 AD) from the Barbaricum

        The paper deals with Late Roman gold coinage (hoards and isolated finds) dated between 275 and 498 AD found in the Barbaricum, in the region between the Tisa, Mureș, Danube rivers and the Timiș-Cerna corridor. This historic and geographic region, known as Banat, nowadays lies in south-western Romania and north-eastern Serbia. The region has yielded 110 of so Roman gold coins: 80 of so coins belong to three hoards: Borča, Denta and Starčevo, and 30 coins are isolated finds from 24 localities, especially from the Banat Plains. Based on archival information, the structure of a group of 23 coins from the Denta hoard (considered lost) is reconstructed here for the first time. The coins were part of the collection of Ormos Zsigmond and next of the National Museum of Banat collections in Timișoara (today two coins from this important discovery are preserved).

        Speaker: Nicoleta Demian (The National Museum of Banat )
    • S67. MIDDLE AGES 5. 12TH-13TH CENTURIES, THE MEDITERRANEAN Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Convener: Luca Gianazza (Independent Researcher)
      • 132
        “Latin" Imitations of Hyperpyra of John III Vatatzès—A Coinage of Geoffrey II of Villehardouin?

        The hyperpyra of John III Vatatzès of Nicaea were imitated in such quantity that the Florentine merchant Francesco Pegolotti noted them as "latin" gold hyperpyra. In 2000 Ernest Oberländer-Tȃrnoveanu published guidelines on how to recognize the imitations, based on a Romanian hoard. This paper presents additional guidance for identifying "latin" imitations and distinguishing them from modern counterfeits, and proposes that their issuer was Geoffrey II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, circa 1236-1243; Geoffrey II offered an annual subsidy of 22,000 hyperpyra to Latin Emperor Baldwin II in 1236, and continued supporting the Empire as late as 1243. Hoard evidence will be offered in support of this proposal, and a possible mint site suggested.

        Speaker: Robert Leonard (American Numismatic Society )
      • 133
        The ‘Bayindir/1988’ Hoard of Byzantine Thirteenth-Century Billon Trachea

        The aim of this paper is to present for the first time a new Byzantine coin hoard which was discovered in Bayindir. The hoard consists of 113 billon trachea. The paper demonstrates the significance of the hoard with reference to its overstrikes, and to the numerical predominance of Theodore I Lascaris’ Second Coinage, which is abundant in Turkish hoards and almost absent from Greek deposits. The evidence of the present hoard is supplemented with another published hoard of Turkish provenance, the ‘Ağacik’ hoard, which marked the beginning of putting on record a large range of hoard evidence from Turkey. The ‘Bayindir’ hoard is a strong indicator of the diffusion of the Nicaean coinage in the western coastland of Asia Minor during the second decade of the 13th century A.D, and offers new insights into the economic activity of Theodore I, who fought against his Byzantine rivals, the Latins and the Turks.

        Speakers: Ceren Ünal (Celal Bayar University ), Eleni Lianta
      • 134
        The circulation of the coinage of Lucca in Emilia-Romagna in the 11th-12th centuries

        The analysis of the written sources and finds will be used to propose a preliminary overview of the circulation of the coinage of Lucca north of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. Traditionally the territory of Emilia-Romagna has been regarded as an area of overlap of two different "monetary areas" which emerged in the eleventh century when mints began to strike coins with different types. Presumably, economic and political dynamics were involved. It seems that a decisive role in the circulation of this currency was played by the Canossa family which dominated a large territory between Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy. An initial analysis of the data shows that different monetary areas influenced the Emilia-Romagna region, but between the 11th and 12th century the coinage of Lucca took over this territory, except in Parma and Piacenza districts.

        Speakers: Domenico Luciano Moretti (Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna), Mattia Francesco Antonio Cantatore (Università di Verona)
    • S83. MEDALS 1. FEMALE RULERSHIP & ROYAL REPRESENTATION ON MEDALS FROM 17TH TO 18TH CENTURY Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Org.: Ylva Haidenthaller, Anna Lörnitzo; chair: Ylva Haidenthaller

      Although male rulers tend to dominate the early modern historical narrative, there were also successful women who, for decades, directed the diverse political affairs of their dominions, leaving a significant numismatic imprint as they commemorated their deeds and achievements on medals.
      While gender research is already an increasing area of the historical sciences, it is only rarely applied in numismatic studies. Many aspects regarding the role of women in coinage remain unexplored. However, studies on the depiction of female rulers on coins and medals are of particular interest because they add to the understanding of royal image-making.

      The aim of this session is to focus on female ruler’s iconography on medals. The lectures will examine the medal production of European Empresses and Queens regnant from the 17th to the 18th century, namely Queen Christina of Sweden (reg. 1632–1654), Queen Anne of Ireland and England (reg. 1702–1714), (Empress) Maria Theresa of Austria (reg. 1740–1780) and Empress regnant of Russia Catherine the Great (reg. 1762–1796).
      The contributions will address aspects such as the public representation through portraits on coins and medals, the interaction between the court and media through official medals, the target audience of their medals, as well as the distribution and commercialisation of medals. The papers will touch upon whether these monarchs employed specific female imagery or male representation codes to underline their position, emphasising dynastic inheritance, and how they portrayed topics such as succession or warfare.
      These four rulers offer -not least by their geographic variety - an opportunity for a comparative approach to the study of the iconography of female rulership. Eventually, this session is expected to broaden the insight into early modern royal representation on medals.

      Convener: Ylva Haidenthaller (Lund University)
      • 135
        The Nordic Minerva and her medals: Queen Christina’s iconographic strategies during her reign in Sweden,

        As patron of the arts, Queen Christina was actively engaged in the design and production of her medals. She invited medal artists from abroad to work for her at the Swedish court and sought the development of medal art. Most of all, she launched a unique iconographic style. In contrast to her predecessors and successors, Queen Christina employed an antique-inspired imagery unusual for that time .
        This paper presents a wide array of Christina’s medals produced during her reign as Queen of Sweden (1632–1654), from adolescence to abdication, which illustrates this unusual female rulership. It will show how she utilised medals to negotiate dynastic inheritance, female codes, and discuss how she merged tradition and novelty to promote herself as a Nordic Minerva.

        Speaker: Ylva Haidenthaller (Lund University)
      • 136
        Les médailles de la reine Anne, 1702-1714

        This talk will deal with the representation of Queen Anne on the medals of the Royal Mint in London during her reign, from 1702 to 1714.
        We propose to address the link between coins and the first medal of the reign, and the evolution of her bust during her reign.
        Finally, we propose to address the evolution of production of medals during her reign, as a part of the royal representation as female ruler of early 18th-century England.

        Speaker: Thomas Cocano (Saprat, EPHE – PSL)
      • 137
        [⊝ not streamed] King and Mother. Politics and gender aspects on medals of Empress Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780)

        Images play a major role in the media strategies of politicians, who aim to increase their prestige and authority. That is of course the case nowadays and it was already so in the days of Empress Maria Theresa. By then, medals had become suitable tools of propaganda and historiography. Nowadays, they are unique sources on the visual culture and royal image-making. During Maria Theresa’s lifetime, more than 200 different types of medals were created for her commemoration. The whole spectrum of her medals comprises subjects of sovereignty, domestic as well as military affairs, and the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty.
        This contribution sets out to examine medals as a medium of representation and visual communication from an iconographic point of view. It explores the image created by medals of Maria Theresa and her reign by analyzing the iconography of her portraits and the reverse depictions from the perspective of politics, dynastic issues and especially gender aspects.

        Speaker: Anna Lörnitzo (Coin Collection, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee break
    • RT 4 - TOWARDS A NEW PARADIGM FOR COIN CIRCULATION WITHIN THE ROMAN EMPIRE Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Liesbeth Claes

      The purpose of this round table is to elaborate on the various factors behind coin circulation patterns in order to constitute a new paradigm which can be integrated into the currently accepted model of coin circulation within the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 235).
      No direct evidence has survived to testify the decision-making processes of the Roman imperial authorities regarding coin production or distribution. According to the consensus reached by extrapolating conclusions from small sets of coin hoard data, the Roman Empire minted coins primarily to pay Roman troops stationed at the frontiers. In order to acquire coins to pay taxes to Rome, inhabitants of rural and urban regions sold wares and provided services to the army. According to this deductive model, presented by Hopkins in 1980, Roman coins which entered circulation returned as taxes in Rome. This resulted in homogeneous coin pools in the military and non-military provinces. Although this view has been firmly entrenched in the scholarly debate and followed in numerous handbooks, there is remarkably little empirical evidence to support it. Moreover, more recent studies, such as Howgego 1994, van Heesch 2009, Kemmers 2006 and Hellings 2016, have even demonstrated that other factors in Roman coin circulation have to be taken into account as well.
      This round table will bring together a number of speakers to discuss various factors behind coin distribution and transfers, from an understanding of the coins’ particular aspects such as metal, denomination and iconography. In the plenary discussion, these aspects can be related to patterns of coin circulation within the Roman Empire, opening a debate on the distinctive (regional) agencies behind these patterns, the differences in coin patterns between the east and west, and finally, the best methodological tools to analyse coin circulation patterns.

      List of palelists:
      Liesbeth Claes
      Andrew Brown
      Alessandro Bona
      Andrea Casoli
      Johan van Heesch
      Suzanne Frey-Kupper
      Markus Peter

      Convener: Liesbeth Claes (Leiden University)
      • 138
        Decades without bronze minting in the first century AD: significance and impact on the coin circulation
        Speaker: Johan van Heesch (Royal Belgium Coin Cabinet)
      • 139
        Provision of AE denominations, including (very) small change in the early Principate from sites in the Western Mediterranean and reasons
        Speaker: Suzanne Frey-Kupper (University of Warwick)
      • 140
        Taxes and trade, and what else? Aspects of coin supply in the Roman West
        Speaker: Markus Peter (Augusta Raurica / Universität Bern / Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds)
      • 141
        Towards a new paradigm for coin circulation within the Roman Empire - Conclusion session
        Speakers: Alessandro Bona (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart), Andrea Casoli (Coin Cabinet Historische Museum Basel), Andrew Brown (British Museum / Portable Antiquities Scheme), Johan van Heesch (Royal Belgium Coin Cabinet), Liesbeth Claes (Leiden University), Markus Peter (Augusta Raurica / Universität Bern / Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds), Suzanne Frey-Kupper (University of Warwick)
    • S06. GREECE 6. ITALY – SICILY 2 Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Benedetto Carroccio (Università della Calabria - Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici)
      • 142
        Pyrrhus’ thread: A Nike and her trophy

        Gold coins minted by Pyrrhus king of Epirus during the final stage of his campaign in Sicily have on the reverse the image of Nike bearing a trophy and holding an oak wreath. The trophy consists of a corselet cuirass and a thyreos-type shield with a central reinforcing ridge. Recent analysis has linked this iconography to the memory of Pyrrhus’ victory at Heraclea Lucaniae. The iconography seen on the golden staters and half-staters minted at Syracusae has been compared to two terracotta figurines from the inventory of a grave in a garden near the church dedicated to San Francesco di Paola in the urban area of the city of Taras. Here, we propose to relate the image of Nike bearing a trophy, including a thyreos-type shield, to the imagery dating to the eastern campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy and Sicily.

        Speaker: Carlo Lualdi (University of Warwick )
      • 143
        Alaisa/Halaesa (Sicily): the ancient site and its monetary profile

        Ancient Alaisa/Halaesa has seen many excavations in recent years. Different sectors of the site have been studied - the sanctuary of Apollo by the joint archeological mission of the Universities of Messina and Oxford; the city walls by the University of Palermo; the agora and the theatre by the Université de Picardie Jules Verne of Amiens. As a result, the site yielded a significant number of coins. We can draw from them a general idea about the circulation and compare with what we know from previous excavations and the output of the city’s mint. The study of the coin finds has potential for a chronological reconstruction of the circulation of coins in this area of Sicily. As a next step, this can be compared with other areas of the north-eastern Tyrrhenian coast of this island, with the aim of gaining a general understanding of the history of this area

        Speaker: Mariangela Puglisi (Università di Messina)
      • 144
        The historical fight of Athenian “owl” and Sicilian “lizard” on Kamarina’s bronze coins

        In 415 BC, during the second Athenian expedition against Sicily, when almost all the inhabitants of the island had united against the Athenians alongside the Syracusans (Thuc. VII 33 2), Kamarina minted copious series of bronze coins representing both the Athenian owl attacking the Sicilian lizard, and the combat of this small reptile against the great raptor. These coins, found today in all of the archaeological excavations conducted in Sicily, represented a "manifesto of resistance" which Kamarina together with other Sicilian cities was promoting against the attack of Athens. This episode, with its strong political and military significance, must have left a heavy mark on the pride of Athens. In fact, after several decades, around the middle of the 4th century BC, to erase the shame of that defeat the Athenian Praxiteles created the famous statue of Apollo Sauroktonos, “the Lizard-Slayer”.

        Speaker: Maria Caltabiano Caccamo (Università degli Studi di Messina )
      • 145
        Key-bearer female figure on the coinage of Entella (440-430 BC): Analysis and meaning.

        Male and female figures depicted standing in front of an altar and making a sacrifice are one of the main features in the coinage of Greek Sicily. Typically the female figures are shown holding a phiale, but on the first litrae minted at Entella (440-430 BC) the female figure appears holding a temple key in her other hand.
        These litrae issued by Entella are the only ancient Greek coins with an image of a female figure bearing a key. Consequently, a study of this iconography made in conjunction with evidence from archaeology (because of the lack of references to this polis in the written sources) is made to determine the meaning of this iconographic depiction and the local cults, since the deities who appear related to the title of “Kleidouchos” (understood as “key-bearer”) are Persephone, Hekate, Cybele, Artemis, Aphrodite, Athena, Hera and Apollo.

        Speaker: José Miguel Puebla Morón (Independent Researcher )
    • S20. GREECE 20. DIGITAL DEVELOPMENTS IN HELLENISTIC ROYAL COINAGES Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Peter van Alfen

      Between 2015 and 2020, largely with funding provided by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the American Numismatic Society launched Hellenistic Royal Coinages (HRC, numismatics.org/hrc), a ground-breaking internationally collaborative online research tool with several major component parts: 1) PELLA, which focuses on the coinages of Alexander the Great and his Macedonian predecessors; 2) Seleucid Coins Online; 3) Ptolemaic Coins Online; 4) Antigonid Coins Online; 5) the monograms repository; 6) the digitized notebooks of Edward T. Newell, a major early 20th century American scholar of Hellenistic coinages; and 7) CoinHoards.org, a digitally enhanced hoard database currently based on the 1973 publication Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards. More recently with funding from both the NEH and the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council, an additional component, OXUS-INDUS, is being constructed, which focuses on Hellenistic Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coinages.
      This session will present the origins, design, development, and on-going updates of the HRC project with particular focus on the OXUS-INDUS component, the monograms repository, and CoinHoards.

      Convener: Peter van Alfen (American Numismatic Society)
      • 146
        Hellenistic Royal Coinages. An Overview

        This paper will discuss the origins, development and future plans for the Hellenistic Royal Coinages digital resource (numismatics.org/hrc) and its component parts, including PELLA, Seleucid Coins Online, Ptolemaic Coins Online, Antigonid Coins Online, and CoinHoards.org.

        Speaker: Peter van Alfen (American Numismatic Society)
      • 147
        Network Analysis Applied to Hellenistic Monograms

        Over the course of the American Numismatic Society's Hellenistic Royal Coinages project, nearly 3,000 monogram identifiers were created, each with an open access Screen Vector Graphic image that can be reused on the web and in print. These monogram identifiers have been integrated into the online type corpora of PELLA (the coinages struck in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus), Seleucid Coins Online, Ptolemaic Coins Online, and Antigonid Coins Online. The result is that the monograms are linked to more than 10,000 types and subtypes, which are also linked to Nomisma.org concepts for denominations, mints, authorities, etc., enabling the query and visualization of the relationship between these entities and the monograms appearing on associated coinage. This paper introduces the user interfaces built around searching and visualizing monograms, from network graphs to maps depicting the production and circulation of these symbols, and the questions that might be answered.

        Speaker: Ethan Gruber (American Numismatic Society)
      • 148
        OXUS-INDUS: A new typology for Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coins

        Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coins are the best, and in many cases only, primary source for our understanding of these enigmatic Hellenistic kingdoms. Since the publication of Osmund Bopearachchi’s seminal 'Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques' in 1991 many new coins have appeared. This paper will present a new typology of these coinages, created as part of the OXUS-INDUS project, and made available initially in a linked open data format online. It will also demonstrate the ways in which this new material and its online portal can be used to address important research questions, such as investigating patterns of circulation and systems of mint administration, allowing new light to be shed on these historically important coins.

        Speakers: Gunnar Dumke (Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg), Simon Glenn (Ashmolean Museum / University of Oxford)
      • 149
        Hellenistic Coinages – Plugging the Gaps

        Part one of this paper will discuss the nature of typologies used to describe Royal Coinages, both in print and online. In part two it will then outline the work that has taken place as part of the ARCH project, to plug the gaps in the typologies of royal coinages that have not been covered by the Hellenistic Royal Coinages project. In part three it will explain why ARCH has taken the approach that it has, and it is hoped that the ARCH project can help to build more complete typologies in the future. In conclusion, the ARCH project will be demonstrated live.

        Speaker: Andrew Meadows (New College, Oxford)
    • S33. CELTIC 2. CELTIC & REPUBLICAN COINS Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier (IRAMAT, CNRS-Univ. Orléans)
      • 150
        Two Recent Iron Age Coin Hoards from Britain

        This paper presents the results of work on two recent finds of British Iron Age coin hoards. A hoard from the New Forest consists of two discrete silver deposits with evidence for deliberate damage and destruction of coinage. It contains a mixture of South Western and Southern coinage, including a number of new types.

        The second, the Baddow, Essex hoard, is the largest British gold hoard from recent times, containing 933 coins, 900 of which are of the same type. The homogeneity of the hoard presents an opportunity to study the sequence of coin production within a single deposit. The distribution of coins from the same dies also sheds light on regional networks in the North Thames area and beyond.

        Speaker: Eleanor Ghey (The British Museum )
      • 151
        Celtic coins and event history - a stormy relationship. The case of the Cimbri migrations

        Until the 1970s, linking archaeological data to historical events documented in the literary sources was a common approach in archaeological studies. Despite its limitations this method is still frequently used. There are many interpretations of the consequences of the migrations of the Cimbri and Teutones, which according to some texts swept Europe at the end of the 2nd century BC. One of these consequences would be the settlement of the Helvetii on the Swiss Plateau (CH), the fortification of Manching (DE) and the abandonment of the site of Němčice nad Hanou (CZ).
        Let us leave aside the sources and restart the investigation, now without a tunnel vision. Can we really identify and confirm migratory phenomena using coins, by comparing the monetary profiles of sites whose occupation covers the period between 150 and 50 BC? What methodology can we use to differentiate between population movements and trade?

        Speakers: Eneko Hiriart (CNRS IRAMAT-CRP2A, UMR 5060 Université Bordeaux Montaigne), Julia Genechesi (Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire, Lausanne / Directrice adjointe )
      • 152
        Il tesoro monetale dal Cardo IV di Ercolano nel Medagliere del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (562 AR)

        Si presenta la composizione del cospicuo ripostiglio di 562 monete d’argento rinvenuto nel 1938 in una cassettina di legno nel corso delle indagini di Amedeo Maiuri nel Cardo IV di Ercolano e custodito nel Medagliere del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (inv. 1947). Il ripostiglio, inedito, consente di discutere il quadro di affermazione del denario d’argento nell’ultima fase di vita della cittadina vesuviana investendo problematiche di emissione e di circolazione della moneta tra la tarda età romana repubblicana e la prima età flavia.

        (EN: I describe the composition of a group of 562 silver coins found in a wooden box in 1938 during Amedeo Maiuri's investigations of Cardo IV at Herculaneum and now in the collection of the Coin Cabinet of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (inv. 1947). This unpublished hoard throws light on the circulation of late Repuyblican and early Flavian silver denarii in the final phase of the life of Herculanium.)

        Speaker: Emanuela Spagnoli (Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II" )
    • S54. ROME 20. COIN FINDS AND USE – BARBARICUM 2 Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Aleksander Bursche (University of Warsaw)
      • 153
        Roman Denarius Hoards in Denmark, a Methodological Update

        In 2010 H. Horsnæs published the first of two volumes of Crossing Boundaries, in which she moved beyond lists of coin finds by approaching the material from an archaeological viewpoint as well as presenting a fully updated publication of the Roman coinage found in Denmark. In this project, I have attempted to update the material further by focusing primarily on the Roman denarius hoards found since 2008. By discussing the methodologies of metal detecting within the Danish law and its inherent challenges, I have sought to shed light on the quality of data within the modern Danish borders. I have shown that, whilst the conclusions regarding the presence of Roman denarii in Denmark have not changed since 2008, by applying new theories to the material we can further improve the way in which we approach the material as scholars. I addition, I have updated the comprehensive picture of Roman denarii found in Denmark.

        Speaker: Rasmus Holst Nielsen (Royal Coll. of Coins and Medals, National Museum of Denmark )
      • 154
        Roman Imperial Gold Medallions, the new finds from Vindelev, Denmark

        The imperial gold medallions of the Late Roman Empire are manifestations of power and prestige, and no doubt were used as visible emblems of status in a gift exchange from the emperor both to his entourage and to foreign peers. The recently found gold hoard from Vindelev, Denmark, and particularly the four large Roman gold medallions from 4th century AD that were part of this deposit, add to our knowledge of high status networking in the transitional period from the Late Antique to Early Medieval Europe.

        Speaker: Helle W. Horsnæs (Nationalmuseet, The Royal Coll. of Coins and Medals )
      • 155
        North Sea Gold Economy in the Age of “Gift Exchange”, c.450–c.760

        This paper examines the corpus of gold coins and coin-like objects from the North Sea area in a broadly construed Merovingian period, c.450–c.760. While Grierson’s position on a non-economic use of gold in the early middle ages has generally carried the day, there have been others, such as Michael Metcalf and Mark Blackburn, who have voiced varying degrees of dissent. Based on the quantity and distribution of these gold finds from archaeological sites and other finds—both single and hoarded—it seems there has been a degree of scholarly undervaluing of the economic role of these objects. The quantities and distributions of the objects present variation by region which indicates a greater economic sophistication than is normally allowed in areas that might have been more economically integrated, such as East Anglia and the southern North Sea littoral, while other areas are peripheral—Brittany and Wessex, for example.

        Speaker: Kevin Hoffman (Yale University )
      • 156
        From local finds to broader picture – the Migration Period gold hoards in the Western Pomerania

        There is a general consensus on the influx of solidi in the second half of the 5th c. – which were brought to Scandinavia via Pomerania (the Lower Vistula basin). Another claim is that at the beginning of the 6th c. this influx continued via, for example, Western Pomerania. However, this theory is contradicted when we take a closer look at the nature of these finds. In my paper, I will focus on the latest gold hoards and demonstrate that their appearance is connected to a broader gold circulation in the Baltic zone which took place in the Late Migration Period. These hoards confirm the presence of Scandinavian settlers in Western Pomerania, and are generally related to the archaeological Dębczyno Group. Gold hoards are another element, next to settlements and cemeteries, which define that culture unit. I will try to prove the origin of these hoards and at least of some of the newcomers to the region.

        Speaker: Anna Zapolska (University of Warsaw )
    • S68. MIDDLE AGES 6. 10TH – 12TH CENTURIES, CENTRAL AND NORTH EUROPE Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Convener: Jens Ch. Moesgaard (Stockholm Numismatic Institute, Stockholm University)
      • 157
        [⊝ not streamed] Mladá Boleslav-Podlázky 2011. An unique Bohemian find of denarii, weights and jewelry before 999

        The find in Mladá Boleslav-Podlázky from 2011 contains a combination of denarii, weights and jewellery which is unique for Bohemia. At least 15 Bohemian denarii from the end of the reign of Duke Boleslav II (972–999) date the deposit to the year 999. The new coin evidence helped to refine the attribution of a previously anonymous type of denarius to Cacz, the new Vyšehrad Mintmaster. This is the first find in Bohemia to contain a larger number of weights, at least 10 different types. A set of brass-plated iron weights include 5 in the shape of a bipolar flattened spheroid and 1 polyhedral specimen. The other 4 weights are made of lead and have different shapes. The find also includes three pearls and a piece of raw crystal.

        Speaker: Luboš Polanský (National Museum, Prague)
      • 158
        Viking-Age German coins struck on square flans – purely a Nordic imitation phenomenon?

        There is a small group of Sancta Colonia imitations struck on square flans. They are heavy and their style is barbarized and it is supposed that they are of Nordic origin. However, the best known group of German imitations struck on square flans are Duisburg imitations, probably produced somewhere in southern Scandinavia. Furthermore, there are some Goslar and other imitations which I believe are technologically close to their prototypes struck in Germany and could be considered as German. The paper will present a survey of German imitations on square flans from Swedish and Finnish finds and discuss their dating and origin.

        Speaker: Eeva Jonsson (University of Turku)
      • 159
        Pourquoi Boleslas le Vaillant sur ses deniers se nomma-t-il DVX INCLITVS?

        Le titre inclitus n'était pas utilisé dans toute l'Europe depuis le temps des Visigoths. C'est Boleslas le Vaillant (Bolesław Chrobry), duc de Pologne (992-1025), qui plaça l'inscription: BOLIZLAS DVX INCLITVS sur l'un type de ses deniers. Il y en a 3 variantes qui imitent les modèles saxons du 10/11e s. (A et B) ainsi que le modèle anglosaxon – d'Ethelred II (C). Tous les deniers du type (A, B, C) apparaissent dans les trésors enfouis après l'an 1018. L'auteur suggère que l'émission est liée avec les relations de Boleslas avec l'Empire et personnellement avec le roi / l'empereur Henri II. Les deniers des variantes A et B ont été frappés en 1013 en corelation avec la paix de Mersebourg, tandis que celui de la variante C, en 1018, en corelation avec la paix à Budziszyn/Bautzen.

        (EN: The title inclitus had not been used in all of Europe since the time of the Visigoths. Boleslav the Brave (Bolesław Chrobry), duke of Poland (992-1025) used the inscription BOLIZLAS DVX INCLITVS on one type of his denars. There are three varities which copy the Saxon models of the 10th and 11th cents. (A and B) besides the Anglo-Saxon model of Aethelred II (type C). All the denars of types A, B and C occur in hoards buried after 1018. The author suggests that the issue is linked to relations between Boleslav and the Carolingian Empire and personally with the king, later emperor, Henry II. The type A and B denars were struck in 1013 at the time of the peace of Mersebourg, while type C was struck in 1018, at the time of the peace of Budziszyn/Bautzen.)

        Speaker: Stanisław Suchodolski (Institut of Archaeology and Ethnology of Polish Academy of Sciences )
      • 160
        Archaeological study in the places of hoards finds in Belarus

        Archaeological study at the site of the hoards finds a whole series of perspectives. In this regard, this method of field research is actively used by European archaeologists, but the situation in Belarus is absolutely different. Trying to solve the problem, the National Historical Museum of the Republic of Belarus conducted several expeditions to the places where the hoards from museum collection were found. This was useful for understanding the hiding context of these hoards, but also completed the collection with coins that weren't found by the finder.

        Speakers: Luda Tolkacheva (National Historical Museum of the Republic of Belarus), Roman Krytsuk (Independent Researcher)
    • S84. MEDALS 2. POLAND Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Tom Hockenhull (British Museum)
      • 161
        Holding, handling, flipping: remarks on the perception of medals (15th to 17th centuries)

        Unlike coins, medals were not bound by any restrictions of size or weight. Cast or struck, they were usually larger, thicker and more three-dimensional than the flat coins, sometimes with the obverse and/or reverse shaped in high relief. This phenomenon is especially noticeable in the facing and three-quarter facing portraits frequently seen on medals. However, the compositional scheme of medals, usually similar to that of coins and quite repetitive, was definitively not a fixed standard (as evidenced by e.g. a variety of medal shapes, and inconsistency in the orientation of die axes). In my talk I wish to focus on some artistic devices resulting from the three-dimensionality of medals and those regarding their tangibility. Further I will examine and shortly discuss the ways different medals were or could have been handled and perceived by their owners.

        Speaker: Agnieszka Smołucha-Sładkowska (National Museum in Kraków )
      • 162
        The life of Maria Klementyna Sobieska-Stuart (1702-1735) written in medals and their symbolic meanings

        The paper aims to present the figure of the titular Queen of Great Britain Maria Klementyna Sobieska-Stuart based on medals which commemorate the most important moments in her life. The medals were minted by the top-class medalist Otto Hamerani at the request of Popes Clement XI and Benedict XIV. The medals commemorate the princess's escape from captivity in Ambras Castle, her triumphal journey to Montefiascone for her marriage with James Edward Francis Stuart, the glory of the royal couple, the birth of her sons and the death of the queen. So far, the collection has not been the subject of any special consideration. It is an invaluable resource for research owing to the symbolism of representations which refer to mythological archetypes, strongly rooted in the European art of portraiture. All of them testified the importance of the Stuart legacy and present an overview of their unsettled life.

        Speakers: Francesca Ceci (Musei Capitolini ), Jarosław Pietrzak
      • 163
        The Prize Medals of the Stanislaus II Augustus Reign

        The 18th century was the time when the whole Europe widely introduced the award or prize medals not only as a gift or token of gratitude to commemorate the merits of an individual or an institution, which was an established practice, but also a specific type of a universal medal. Like many other rulers of the Enlightenment, king Stanislaus II Augustus introduced this type of medal (e.g. Merentibus in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) as a valuable royal prize awarded to a wide range of distinguished or famous and illustrious people, not only Polish nobles, but also to foreigners. The paper analyses the types of prize or award medals manufactured during the reign of the last Polish king.

        Speaker: Juliusz Zacher (The Royal Castle in Warsaw – Museum)
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch break
    • PS01 GREEK WORLD
      • 164
        The three-quarter facing heads in Hellenistic Carian coinage: a sign of submission?

        During the Hellenistic period, the tradition of Carian coinages with three-quarter facing heads dated back already at least a century, to the final years of the 5th century and the Rhodian three-quarter facing Helios coins. On the other hand, during the 4th century the Hecatomnids also issued coins with a three-quarter facing Apollo. Later still, in the 3rd century, a new wave of three-quarter facing heads, allegedly of Helios, sprung up in different mints across Caria. This phenomenon has been interpreted as a consequence of the growing Rhodian hegemony and its emission even as a sign of a submission of a polis to this regional power. But in this paper, we will address the possibility that this coinage was used by Carian poleis and communities not just as a sign of the Rhodian economic and political domination, but also as a strategy to face and negotiate with this power.

        Speaker: Mateus Da Silva (Universidade Federal Fluminense)
      • 165
        The Coinage of Erythrai and Historia Numorum Online

        This paper presents an overview of our research into the pre-Roman history and coinage of Erythrai in Ionia, which we are conducting within the framework of a PhD thesis undertaken at the Istanbul University. The typological arrangement of the numismatic material is being recorded directly on Historia Numorum Online (HNO) and marks the start of the first Ionian mint of this collaborative project. In this paper, after a brief summary of the history of Erythrai, recent studies and excavations, our main purpose will be to introduce the city's pre-Roman coin types and explain their entry in the new Ionian volume of HNO.

        Speaker: Ersin Bakış (Istanbul University)
      • 166
        A new member of the ancient falsifiers. King Ballaeus' silver coinage

        The subject of the paper will be silver coins of Ballaeus, found during the excavations in Risan. Some of them turned out to be subaerates. The paper will focus on the nature of this coinage, on other previously known Illyrian silver coins, and attempt to answer this question: who cheated whom? Ballaeus - his subjects, or the subjects - their king?

        SubID 52277009729

        Speaker: Renata Ciołek (University of Warsaw)
      • 167
        Diachronic and diatopic analysis of a LIN lemma: Hermes with petasos.

        We try to summarize for the first time the monetary occurrences of this type, sometimes poorly described due to heavy wear of the coins and imprecision of the descriptions.
        Also addressed in our analysis is the diachronic and diatopic distribution of the type, made in line with the methodology of Lexicon Iconographicum Numismaticae, in an attempt to contextualise it and give historical-cultural interpretations drawing on the most recent historical and historical-religious studies, and some attested contacts with oriental peoples.
        Using examples, histograms and maps we will highlight the beginnings of this phenomenon in the 6th century BC at Kyzikos, where the cult of Hermes was active and widespread; this sema continues to enjoy popularity in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. The presence of the type decreases between the second century BC and second century AD, continuing to appear only in small provincial urban realities without reciprocal cultural links.

        Speakers: Benedetto Carroccio (Università della Calabria - Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici), Ivan Caparelli (Università della Calabria - Corso di laurea magistrale in Archeologia)
      • 168
        Hellenistic weights and measures in Western Asia Minor (Propontis, Troas and Aeolis)

        Within the framework of a PhD research project which is part of the Pondera Online collaborative project, I analyse the weights from several city-states in Western Asia Minor within three geographical areas: Propontis, Troas and Aeolis. For the first time this material will be studied from a global perspective. The poster presents the corpora of to date c. 600 weights and develops four complementary approaches: the typology of these weights (iconography, legend, metals, etc.), their metrology (reconstitution of the metrological structures of the city-states), their archaeological context, and anthropological value (their use in daily life). We will carry out local, regional and interregional analyses.

        Speaker: Thomas Leblanc (UCLouvain)
      • 169
        Naval imagery on Seleucid bronze coinage: the curious case of the city of Antioch

        During the reign of Seleucus IV (187-175 BCE) bronze coins, depicting prow of galley, were minted in Antioch on the Orontes. This appears to be a unique and remarkable development. Antioch was a river city without naval traditions, with nearby Seleucia Pieria and Laodicea functioning as its port-cities. The ancient sources do not mention Seleucus undertaking any naval activity. On the contrary, he supposedly refrained from doing so, due to Roman restrictions. How then can the contradictory presence of naval imagery be explained? I will examine the assumption of low Seleucid naval activity from a historical perspective and explore possible explanations of the "prow" type within broader numismatic developments relating to naval imagery in a Mediterranean context. How does the prow relate to local traditions, military victories, or naval prowess? Where do Seleucus IV and Antioch fit in? And why is the "prow" predominantly shown on bronze coins?

        Speaker: Pim Möhring (National Numismatic Collection, De Nederlandsche Bank)
      • 170
        Notes on the Coin Epigraphy of Magna Graecia and Sicily

        Epigraphy is one of the most neglected aspects of numismatics. Starting from a complete, albeit brief, examination of studies on coin legends undertaken so far, this work aims to catalogue and analyze inscriptions related to the issues of Magna Graecia and Sicily. The island of Sicily, controlled by different powers over the centuries first, Carthaginians, and next Greeks and Romans, has a rather complex linguistic history: the differences between the Euboean-Attic dialect and the Doric dialect are compounded by the influence of Oscan and of the Sicelian substrate. The determining factor is not limited to the linguistic aspect alone, the iconographic component also played a part: in fact, some coin issues testify to a close link between the type and the legend. Finally, this analysis will offer an in-depth look at the types and cases of the declension used in relation to the issuing mints.

        Speaker: Sara Quartarone (Università degli Studi di Messina)
      • 171
        The (winged) horse as motif on coins from Corinth and Maroneia

        This paper is a summary of my master thesis in which I collected all the coins from the poleis of Corinth and Maroneia from the Archaic through to the Hellenistic periods. These cities chose the (winged) horse as a motif, so I compared the various representations with other poleis in the Mediterranean. The overall concept was to study the movement of the horse. Next to the usual canon of the “flying Pegasus” used in Corinth, and the “prancing horse” of Maroneia, there are also very interesting exceptions. Among them I was able to identify some postures of the horse which nowadays are called “dressage movements” which were described already by Xenophon (430/25–354 BC) in his work “On Horsemanship”. These coins illustrate how the horse could be captured in a significant moment of its movement or in its natural habitat, and show the further significance of the animal in different regions of the Mediterranean.

        Speaker: Oliwia Ullrich (WWU Münster)
    • PS02 ROMAN AND CELTIC NUMISMATICS
      • 172
        Noli, obsecro, istum disturbare! Late Roman coin forgeries disturbing scientific research

        This study presents several forgeries which – unless identified – disrupt early 4th c. Roman numismatics. Late Roman coin forgeries are nothing new and many public collections include forgeries, often unknowingly. In addition, forgeries in increasing numbers have been entering the commercial market. Undetected old and new forgeries pose the same problem: they disturb research by introducing false data. The outcome of studies may be skewed or outright wrong. New evidence shows that the famous PLVRA NATAL FEL coin, purportedly struck for Constantine I’s 50th birthday, is a forgery. This “evidence” for the emperor’s age must be disregarded. Other studies affected by forgeries include: Christian symbols on coins (SPES PVBLIC forgeries; “emperor holding labarum” forgeries); 1/24 pound silver AVGVSTVS / CAESAR medallions: false “trial strikes” of gold donatives, in themselves forgeries; in fact a flood of “Late Roman” forgeries in all metals threaten to disturb or obstruct whole areas of numismatic research.

        Speaker: Lars Ramskold (Independent Researcher)
      • 173
        Preliminary report on the Varzi hoard (Pavia, Northern Italy)

        A large hoard of radiates discovered in 2019 near Varzi (PV – Northern Italy) consists of more than 1,300 coins which date from Gallienus to Aurelian (based on a preliminary analysis). The specimens are in a very poor condition, probably due to the lack of a ceramic vessel to preserve them from a direct contact with the ground. This is confirmed by the absence of any ceramic fragments on the site of the discovery.
        The Varzi hoard is one of a significant group of hoards deposited in the region during the second half of the 3rd century A.D., and smaller than some of them (Grumello Cremonese, Ceretto Lomellina, Ottobiano).
        The coins are being restored at the University of Bologna as part of a degree thesis in ‘Conservazione e Restauro’, sampling different techniques to achieve effective results in readability and preservation of coins with a low percentage of silver.

        Speakers: Alessandro Bona (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart), Alessandro Cavagna (State University of Milan), Cecilia Norfini (University of Bologna), Claudia Perassi (Catholic University of of Sacred Heart, Milano), Florence Jeanne Marie Caillaud (University of Bologna)
      • 174
        A hoard of late Roman bronze coins from Moshny (Central Ukraine) and Roman-Barbarian relations in the 4th century

        A hoard of Roman coins recovered in 2005 outside the rural settlement Moshny (Cherkassy region, Central Ukraine) includes issues Constantius II to sons of Theodosius I, basically AD 383-388, of the same nominal value (AE2), mainly copper. Finds of hoards of Late Roman coins on the territory of the East European forest-steppe are very rare. Their main area of concentration within the range of the Chernyakhiv culture is in Moldavia and Romania, i.e. not far from the borders of the Roman Empire. Taking into account the data from written sources and new archaeological discoveries, the hoard of Moshny may be interpreted as evidence of the involvement of Gothic foederati in active coin circulation within the Roman Taurica.

        Speaker: Maksym Levada (Independet Researcher)
      • 175
        A hoard of sestertii and champlevé enamel ornaments from the Myrhorod (Ukraine)

        In 2020, near Myrhorod (Poltava oblast, Ukraine), a hoard was accidentally found which included 12 Roman sestertii from the time of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Commodus, as well as ornaments made in the champlevé enamel technique (two bracelets, a brooch, and a chain), produced in the second half of 2nd - early 3rd centuries. This hoard should probably be associated with the population of the Kyiv archaeological culture. Most finds of Roman sestertii (single finds and hoards) on the territory of Eastern Europe forest-steppe and steppe zone with this culture are connected. The sestertii, which could have come from Central Europe or the Baltic region, could have been a metal source for the Kievan culture's jewelry.

        Speakers: Dmytro Filatov (V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University), Kyrylo Myzgin (Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw), Maryna Filatova (V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University)
      • 176
        Coins and Conquest; coin hoarding in Britain 200 BC – AD 96

        Covering the appearance of the first coins imported to Britain in the early second century BC, through to the development of insular trimetallic coinage, the Roman invasion of Claudius in AD 43 and beyond, this poster will present aspects of new research into the Iron Age to Roman transition in Britain from the perspective of coin hoards.
        British ‘Celtic’ coinage has regional variation but only appears in the southeast of the country; are different coinages treated differently in varying parts of the coin-using regions? Where are these hoards appearing? How did Roman secular activity influence hoard deposition? These are just some of the questions this new research seeks to explore. Using landscape, traditional contextual archaeology, and numismatical techniques, I explore how and where, and indeed if, coin hoarding practices changed in Britain from the later Iron Age to the end of the Flavian period in AD 96.

        Speaker: Anni Byard (University of Leicester / Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)
      • 177
        Collective coin hoards from the 4th century from the territory of Avgusta Traiana/Beroe

        The author presents fourteen coin hoards, divided into four groups. The hoards from the villages of Arnautito, Gita, Byalizvor, Byalo pole belong to the second group, dated to 315-317 AD. The hoard from Rakitnitza village containing coins minted until 324-326 AD, belongs to the third group. Two types of coin hoards are placed in the fourth group. The first subgroup includes the hoard from the village of Karanovo, and two other hoards from Enina buried around 361 AD. The second subgroup includes coins recovered in the region of Shipka-Sheynovo, and the necropolis of Avgusta Traiana, where all were used as Charon’s obols. Coin hoards in the second and third group are mostly composed of folles. The fourth group predominantly contains bronze coins AE 4 and siliquae. The time and place of deposition of the coin hoards reflect the political and economic events in this region of the Roman province Thrace.

        Speaker: Mariana Minkova (Regional Museum of History, Stara Zagora)
      • 178
        Distribution of Casting Copies of Roman Denominations in the Barbaricum Territories of Southeast Europe. Some Aspects.

        Qualitatively new information was obtained from a series of analyses of the elemental composition of alloys of coin samples, technological residues and casting waste.
        However, the organization of a full-fledged, in accordance with modern methods of archaeological research of objects, remains among the first where it is assumed the presence of centers for the production of casting copies. For all its complexity - both organizational and financial - it is necessary to find ways to achieve this task.

        Speakers: Aleksandr Nadvirnyak (The State Historical and Culture Reserve “Mezhybizh”), Oleh Pohorilets (The State Historical and Culture Reserve "Mezhybizh")
      • 179
        Hoard of Roman coins from Lubawka in the Krucze Mountains. Preliminary archaeological and numismatic interpretation

        The discovery of a hoard of thirteen Roman coins (2nd-century CE sestertii) in the Krucze Mountains leads us to revise the image of the Sudetes as an area almost completely devoid of human settlement in the Roman period. The hoard is absolutely unique in the context of the Central European Barbaricum. The find from Święta Góra has a clearly symbolic character, connected with the spiritual sphere of ancient communities established in the region during the period of Roman influence. It confirms the use of the Sudetes mountain passes as a communication route between areas settled by the Przeworsk Culture in the north and by the Germanic tribes of the Upper Elbe cultures.

        Speakers: Dawid Maciejczuk (University of Wrocław), Marcin Bohr (University of Wrocław), Mateusz Matula (Institute of Archaeology, University of Wrocław)
      • 180
        Managing the Tomares Hoard with Numisdata/Dédalo

        The Tomares Hoard, found in 2016 at the Olivar del Zaudín Park (Tomares, Sevilla), is one of the largest Roman monetary hoards ever found. Composed exclusively of nummi from the 16 active mints of the Tetrarchy period, specifically between c. 294 and 312 this hoard is a great source of information about this turbulent part of the Late Roman Period, offering insight into the situation in the Diocesis Hispaniarum.
        The Tomares Hoard is at the epicenter of the advancement of Digital Numismatics in Andalusia and with the help of the Dédalo/Numisdata software will undergo a process of digitization to make its information available to researchers and the general public alike. This process will be displayed on the poster, and additionally as a sample of the results will be made available via QR code.

        Speaker: Alejandro García Lidón (University of Sevilla)
      • 181
        Monetary circulation in the mining area Territoria metallorum – case study of the Timacum Minus site

        Timacum Minus continued as an administrative center of the Territoria metallorum mining area from the middle of the 2nd century until its destruction around the middle of the 5th century. Ever since its foundation at the end of the 1st century an urban settlement had developed around the military fort.
        The numismatic finds from Timacum Minus fall into two categories: coins from a stratigraphic context and stray finds. By comparing the two categories we propose to test the relevance of stray coin finds analysis when made on its own, the value of stray coins as a sample, and the difference in the circulation of the two categories of finds. The end goal is to determine the influence of socio-economic circumstances on the monetary circulation in this specifically organized area, given the multiple roles of the military stationed in mining areas, who both defended and administered the Territoria metallorum.

        Speaker: Marija Jović (Institute of Archaeology in Belgrade)
      • 182
        Multidisciplinary studies of counterfeit Roman Imperial denarii from Belarus

        The territory of Belarus is one of the peripheral zones of the distribution of cast barbarian copies of Roman Imperial denarii. Most Belarusian finds of these coins should be identified with the Wielbark culture whose sites are known in the south-west of Belarus. Then again, the population of the Wielbark culture received cast coins from the related Chernyakhiv culture.
        The study of the metallurgical composition of cast coins made using laser atomic emission spectroscopy showed that it can be very diverse – ranging from specimens made of base metals (copper, tin and lead) to coins with a very high silver content. It can be assumed that the functions of these barbarian forgeries within the barbarian society differed from the functions of the original Roman coins or that of struck barbarian imitations, as evidenced by the absence of cast copies in hoards of Imperial denarii.

        Speaker: Vital Sidarovich (Faculty of Archaeology, Warsaw University)
      • 183
        Numismatic data on the status of Artaxata during the reign of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia

        The report discusses rare coins with the inscription which translates as “metropolis of Artaxians”, attributed to the mint operating in Artaxata (Artashat), the capital of Great Armenia. To date, there are eight alternative dates proposed for the time of issue of these coins. Of these the hypothesis of R. Vardanyan who attributes this coinage to 1/2 and 3/4 AD is the most reasoned. However, the explanation of the dates on the coins presented by R. Vardanyan in his articles did not convince many researchers, and other, alternative hypotheses were proposed. In our opinion, the numbers on the right: 67 (ΖΞ) and 69 (ΘΞ), indicate 66 BC, but this is not the "era of Pompey", as suggested, but the year Tigranes II the Great proclaimed Artashat the capital (metropolis), after the loss of Syrian possessions and the fall of the influence of the former capital Tigranakert.

        Speaker: Serhii Lytovchenko (V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University)
      • 184
        Objects associated with weighing from the Roman Republican camp ‘Cáceres el Viejo’ (Extremadura, Spain)

        The metrological systems and weights have been important marks of identity of cultural groups throughout history, and in their patterns closely linked to the minting of coins. However, the analysis of this class of objects has been rare and undervalued, possibly because of their limited material and formal attractiveness.
        We present here objects associated with the act of weighing from the Roman camp of Cáceres el Viejo (Extremadura, Spain). Most were excavated a century ago by Schulten and published in the past but without an analysis of their characteristics, parallels and possible functionality. Upon closer examination (weight, form, mark, material, etc.) they were linked to the presence of the Roman Army in this part of Hispania, in a camp abandoned probably due to the Sertorian War. They represent the earliest and largest group of pondera, statera, and scales recovered from a Roman Republican military context.

        Speakers: Cruces Blázquez Cerrato (University of Salamanca), Diego Barrios Rodríguez (University of Salamanca)
      • 185
        PIXE and XRF analysis of products and residues of production of cast copies of Roman denarii in the Chernyakhiv culture

        The analyzed coins belong to one of the most exciting categories of numismatic finds on the territory of Eastern Europe – they are copies of the Roman Empire denarii. In the Barbarian Fakers, Manufacturing and use of counterfeit Roman Imperial denarii in East-Central Europe in antiquity project, funded by the Poland National Centre of Science (2018/31/B/HS3/00137) and implemented at the Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw, as part of which the present research is conducted, we have been tasked to determine chemical composition of samples associated with the production in the Chernyakhiv culture of cast copies of Roman denarii by the proton induced X-ray emission. The results of analysis showed that most of the samples are Cu-Sn-Pb three-component alloys. The zinc content does not exceed 5%, which means the absence of brass samples according to the classification of Roman copper alloys. Two samples from Vinnytsia region and Khmelnytsky region are silver.

        Speaker: Oleksandr Buhay (Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine)
      • 186
        Rare coin types of Pautalia and Serdica

        The focus of research are coin types issued by two local mints in the province of Thrace ‒ Pautalia and Serdica. Located in the western part of this Roman province, the two cities struck prolific coinage, starting in the second half of the 2nd century until the early 3rd century (with short interruptions within this period). The mint of Serdica went on to strike a restricted volume of coins also under the sole rule of Gallienus (260-268). A thorough analysis of the two coinages reveals several rare coin types, some of them apparently unique within the Roman provincial coinage. A part of these coin types reflect religious beliefs of the local population, while others demonstrate the impact on these two provincial cities of the Roman imperial cult, as well as its reception and expression in the local coinage.

        Speaker: Nikolay Dimitrov (University of Sofia "St. Kliment Ohridski")
      • 187
        Shipwreck Hoards: a geographical assessment of coin assemblages occurring on shipwreck sites within the Mediterranean

        While the study of terrestrial coin assemblages has a long-standing history within the discipline of numismatics, coin assemblages occurring on shipwreck sites represent a resource that has yet to receive comparable examination. Although the term “hoard” is inclusive of coin assemblages found on shipwreck sites, their limited presence within prominent coin hoard databases is reflective of the challenges associated with documentation. Despite the current disposition, coin assemblages found on shipwreck sites offer a unique opportunity to expand the present inventory of coin hoards, while also providing a perspective on the contemporary use and geographical mobility of coins rarely offered by terrestrial coin assemblages. This poster presents the geographical dispersion of coin assemblages found on shipwreck sites within the Mediterranean Sea, classified by Hellenistic, Roman Republic, Roman Imperial and Byzantine periods. Furthermore, the potential contribution of such coin assemblages to circulation mapping and the reconstruction of the maritime economy is discussed.

        Speaker: Joshua Smith (Independent Researcher)
      • 188
        The coins of Nicopolis ad Istrum kept the Medagliere of the Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana

        The coin Medagliere cabinet of the Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan opened its doors to scholars on 3rd November 2015. Its collection includes more than 50,000 coins and medals. The opening marked the start of the work on cataloguing all the coins and medals of the Cabinet. The poster presents the core of the corpus of Roman Provincial coins of Nicopolis ad Istrum, a collection made unique not only by its quality, but also, and above all, by the quantity of this material which numbers almost a thousand pieces.

        Speakers: Eleonora Giampiccolo (Vatican Apostolic Library), Giancarlo Alteri (Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana)
      • 189
        The Roman Coin Die of Basilia / Basel (CH)

        A late Roman coin die discovered during an excavation in the outskirts of the castrum of Basilia / Basel (CH) in 1999 was identified only in 2021. It turned out to be a heavily corroded iron lower die used to strike late Constantinian imitations of the FEL TEMP REPARATIO / falling horseman type.
        In addition to a detailed presentation of the coin die and its classification in the context of the features of the excavation, the poster will discuss the significance of the coin die within the phenomenon of imitations in the 4th century AD, especially in the Rhineland.

        Speakers: Markus Peter (Augusta Raurica / Universität Bern / Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds), Myriam Camenzind (University of Bern)
      • 190
        The Roman hoard found in Ueken in 2015 (Canton of Aargau, Switzerland)

        In 2015, a Roman coin hoard was unearthed in Ueken, in a remote field close to the Rhine limes. It consists of 4,084 coins dating from Gallienus to the Diarchy (tpq end 293), being thus one of the most significant Roman hoards known to date in Switzerland, and the largest from the late 3rd century AD. As such, it is a first-rate European source for the period between the monetary reforms of Aurelian and Diocletian.
        The archaeological and numismatic study of this assemblage, carried out by a joint team of the Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds and of the Cantonal Archaeology of Aargau, helped to place the Ueken hoard in its historical context. A comparison with the contemporary hoard of Thun (2,304 coins), located close to the Alpine passes, reveals surprisingly strong similarities leading us to conclude that the Ueken hoard cannot be of a directly military origin.

        Speakers: Fanny Puthod (Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds), Markus Peter (Augusta Raurica / Universität Bern / Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds), Pierre Zanchi (Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds)
    • PS03 ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS
      • 191
        A classical revival in Upper Mesopotamia? Some remarks about some Zangid and Artuqid coinage.

        Several coin series minted in northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia on the orders of several princes belonging to the Zangid (521-619/1127-1222) and Artuqid (495-811/1104-1408) dynasties have on them figurative representations imitating ancient coins. The article explores the significance of these images for the users of these coins in the Middle Ages. Geopolitics and the crusades, the ancestral ritual practices and the relationship of the populations to Islam, and the Turkish origin of the issuing authorities could offer a new insight.

        Speaker: Nicolas Consiglio (Musée d'art et d'histoire de Neuchâtel)
      • 192
        [⊝ not streamed] The Coinage in Khuzistan, Alexander the Great to the End of the Sasanians

        On my poster I will present the first results from my PhD project concerned with the coinage in Khuzistan, from Alexander the Great to the End of the Sasanians (c. 325 BC – AD 642). Thus, the research project covers the periods of Seleucid, Arsacid and Sasanian dominance in the territory of Khuzistan in the present-day Iran, as well as the aspirations for independence under local rulers (e.g. the Elymaian kings). Numismatic and economic processes such as the beginning of coin use, the start of local minting and their historical effects will be addressed, as well as possible geographical and chronological range of denominations and coin types, or their further use and/or adoption.

        Speaker: Michael Stal (University of Vienna / Department of History)
      • 193
        Mongol-Caucasian Numismatic History: New Data on the “Qarabāgh” Mint in the 1230s and 1240s

        Our objective is to discuss early Mongol monetary issues in the Caucasus. We focused on the coins bearing the mint name “Qarabāgh” and issued temp. Ögedei and Töregene. The anonymous bow type bearing this mint name has already been published. However, we discovered a specimen restruck from the silver drama (Georgian for dirham) of Queen Rusudan of Georgia (1223-1245) (2.37 g; reportedly, accidental find from the vicinity of Tiflīs). Stephen Album notes that these coins are “occasionally found overstruck on Rum Seljuk dirhams, especially on the lion & sun type” (coins of the latter type circulated widely within the Georgian Kingdom). We also discovered an as yet unique and previously unknown coin of mounted archer type bearing the mint name “Qarabāgh” previously unknown for this type (2.70 g, accidental find from the historical Hereti region of Georgia). Our data and research clarify the numismatic history of Mongol dominion in Caucasus.

        Speaker: Irakli Paghava (G. Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies, Tibilisi)
      • 194
        Reading Mints, Years and Names on Early Arab-Sasanian Silver Coins

        Reading old texts can be very difficult, and when it comes to Arab-Sasanian coins, we encounter the Pahlavi script and the Middle Persian language. The Persian language survived, but the Pahlavi script did not. On the early Arab-Sasanian coins we can see that the Arabic script and language are slowly taking over, culminating in the coin reform of Abd al-Malik in 78-79H. The mint names are the most stable Pahlavi features on the coins, whereas the “BSM ALLAh” legend in Arabic is seen from the very start around the edge. More than sixty names of people and seventy-five mint names written in the Pahlavi script can be found on the coins.

        Speaker: Yngve Karlsson (Gothenburg Numismatic Society)
    • PS04 MEDIEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS
      • 195
        6th-10th century coins in the collection of the Gabinet Numismàtic de Cataluña

        The Gabinet Numismàtic de Cataluña has in its collection a significant representation of issues from the 6th to the 10th centuries which need to be brought up to date in terms of classification and identification. In addition, research will be carried out into the provenance of the coins and their entry into the CNG. The composition of the collection will also be compared with that of other collections in Spain.

        Speaker: Maria Clua Mercadal (Gabinet Numismàtic de Catalunya, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya)
      • 196
        Coins of the Principality of Kyiv issued by Grand Prince Vladimir Olgerdovich

        Silver coins of Grand Prince Vladimir Olgerdovich (1362–1394) were minted on disks cut from a metal sheet. With this method there were no silver waste and a fairly high weight standard was ensured. Coin blanks were sub-circular or oval, between 8 and 15 mm in diameter, and 0.1 and 0.67 g in weight. Since there is no written evidence to confirm the operation of a mint in Kyiv the provenance of these coins is not fully understood. Currency was Hryvnia (weight 204.75 g). Coin stop consisted of 300 coins per one silver hryvnia. Money was minted of .900 fine silver, while bracteates and denarii were made of .500 and .600 fine silver.
        Placed on the obverse was the prince’s mark. There were several types of reverses: plexus and legend in circle with name of the Prince and with letters IS around circular frame.

        Speaker: Olga Venger (South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushynsky)
      • 197
        [⊝ not streamed] Landesmuseum Hannover - the rise of the Welfs dynasty and its reflection in the medals

        With over 43,000 objects, the coins and medals of the Landesmuseum Hannover tell the story of Lower Saxony and Hanover from the Middle Ages to modern times. The historical focus of the collection is on coins related to the personal union of Great Britain and Hanover, 1714 to 1837. During this period, the kings of Hanover ruled Great Britain, and the power of the House of the Welf dating back to the 8th century increased greatly. Georg Ludwig was both King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover. This poster explores changes in the coinage caused by the personal union. It also shows how medals were used to represent the new power of the Welf dynasty. In addition to examining the iconographic and economic changes from the numismatic perspective, the poster will show the concept used by the Landesmuseum Hannover in presenting these medals.

        Speaker: Hülya Vidin (Goethe University Frankfurt/Landesmuseum Hannover)
      • 198
        An unprovenanced early medieval hoard in the collection of the Ossolineum

        The poster reports on an early medieval hoard from an unknown location now in the collection of the Ossolinski National Institute in Wrocław. Surviving at present only as a fragment of the original deposit this early medieval hacksilver hoard was buried in the first half of the 11th century. It includes dirhams, German coins (11) and fifteen fragments of silver ornaments. The German coins are the largest group and were used to date the hoard.

        Speaker: Barbara Butent-Stefaniak (Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich)
      • 199
        Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria: Kings & Vikings

        Copper-alloy stycas, minted in 9th-century Northumbria, are the most common early medieval English coins, but are in need of radical reappraisal. Until recently it was assumed that styca production stopped in 867 due to Viking attacks and civil war, but new research suggests that use and even production continued under Viking control. Comparison of these imitations with official Northumbrian stycas, and examination of stycas within their contexts (hoards, settlements, Viking camps), will enable a clearer understanding of their use and dating. This will provide new evidence for the impact of the Vikings on the 9th-century English economy.
        This poster will introduce the key sites that my PhD thesis works on. It will demonstrate a new periodisation for the coinage, which enables close comparison between periods of styca production, including analysis of imitative types.

        Speaker: Lucy Moore (University of York)
      • 200
        Counterfeiter molds for casting Polish coins (1923-1924) from Lviv and its region

        The study of counterfeiting in Ukraine and Poland is an area of numismatics much neglected until recently. The history of counterfeiting in the part of the Ukrainian lands integrated during the interwar period into the Second Polish Republic still remains a blank spot. A surge in the production of counterfeit Polish coins in the Lviv region during the interwar period is indicated by finds of tools used in casting counterfeit coins.
        Four tools used to make counterfeit coins in the Lviv region presented here are markedly different in their quality, which suggests different owners and different levels of metal processing skill – some are quite sophisticated and others too simple to have been used in the process of coin counterfeiting at all.

        Speaker: Andrii Boiko-Haharin (The National Bank of Ukraine)
      • 201
        For city and church; Small change in late medieval Gelre

        Producing small coins was often a costly affair in the later Middle Ages. The process is labour intensive, and therewith relatively expensive. As of the late fourteenth century their production had become so unattractive for the mint master that the ducal administration needed to take measures to ensure a minimum supply of petty coins. These measures were probably insufficient, which opened a market for seigneurial mints. After their activities stopped around 1450, some cities in the Duchy of Gelre were allowed to strike minor denominations. As these probably had a fiduciary character, a profit could still be made. The profits were generally assigned to the city’s main church. This solution to supply small coins was typical for Gelre and may not have occurred elsewhere. The paper focuses on its evolution in the period 1450s-1543.

        Speaker: Jos Benders (NTNU & KU Leuven)
      • 202
        From Flanders to Milan. A hoard of gold and silver coins from a 16th century mass grave

        Between 2018 and 2019, an archaeological excavation at the basilica of San Vittore al Corpo in Milan uncovered a mass grave with more than thirty corpses. During the excavation of one of the skeletons, a florin of Philip I of Habsburg issued in Antwerp (1500-1506) and thirteen silver coins came to light. The latter are currently impossible to identify (their restoration is planned in the coming months), but perhaps recognisable as Grossi or half Grossi minted in Flanders in the first half of the 16th century. These coins are exceptional in the panorama of the circulation of Milan during this period. The tomb in which they were found probably held the bodies of victims of an epidemic wave, hastily buried, perhaps for fear of contagion. In addition to the historical and archaeological context, the paper will provide a picture of the epidemics which struck Milan in the 16th century.

        Speaker: Alessandro Bona (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart)
      • 203
        Money of the poor: Non-state coinages and the case of mid-seventeenth century British trade tokens

        This poster will introduce my current PhD research on 17th century trade tokens. These privately issued, centrally produced, copper alloy ‘trade’ tokens are a mass phenomenon responding to particular economic and political circumstances between 1648 to 1672 in England, Wales and Ireland but have many international parallels. They will be considered in the light of international and cross-period models of monetisation, non-state coinage and credit. The poster will examine the claims made on the tokens themselves about their issuing and use, in particular the claim they are ‘for the poor’.
        By comparison to other forms of money the poster will aim to encourage readers to think more broadly about monies of the poor and the way certain credit instruments and forms of payment, from tokens to prepayment electricity keys, were, and are, associated specifically with the financially unsecure.

        Speaker: Laura Burnett (University of Exeter)
      • 204
        Picturing Emperor Ferdinand I on Medals in the First Half of the 19th Century.

        The poster will present the author’s dissertation project “Picturing Emperor Ferdinand I on Medals in the First Half of the 19th Century. The medal production between 1835 and 1848 in an art-historical and historical context” implemented between 2016 and 2020 at the Department of Art History at the University of Vienna (Austria). The dissertation focuses on medals during the reign of the Austrian Emperor between 1835 and 1848, and on four central topics to the widest possible extent: the biography and historical circumstances of the ruler, the medal holdings from his reign now in the Coin Collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, the question of the significance of the medal for Habsburg representation and the medal production at the Imperial Central Mint in Vienna of the period.

        Speaker: Andrea Mayr (Coin Collection, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna)
      • 205
        Preliminary results on epigraphy, dies and varieties of the gros tournois of Asti (Piedmont, Italy)

        A study of the gros tournois of the Asti mint (13th-14th century) launched in 2015 has explored so far fifteen international museums and numerous private collections. Hundreds of public auction catalogues were also consulted. Ultimately seventy-three gros tournois were identified, confirming the rarity of this coin. The identity and sequence of dies have been studied using Arslan's methods, the original number of dies has been estimated with Carter and Esty's methods. When possible, XRF analyses were performed by the University of Turin and TQ, Technologies for Quality of Genoa. Seven main epigraphic and stylistic varieties were identified, two of which are still unpublished. For each coin we are trying to reconstruct its pedigree, with provenance and passages in public auctions. Three modern counterfeits obtained using the lost wax method have also been identified. We hope that new entry coins and dies enable us to obtain a complete chrono-typological sequence.

        Speakers: Angelo Agostino (Università degli Studi di Torino), Luca Oddone (Socio della Società Numismatica Italiana / Perito Numismatico Cciaa Asti-Alessandria), Maria Labate (Università degli Studi di Torino), Tiziana Caserta (Museo Civico d'Arte Antica, Palazzo Madama)
      • 206
        Terline and a gold double ducat of Guglielmo IX Paleologo (1512-1513) for Asti mint (Piedmont, Italy)

        In 1931 Maggiora-Vergano attributed to Guglielmo IX Paleologo, Marquis of Monferrato and governor of Asti, a terlina similar to the terline coined in Asti by Louis XII. Nothing more was known about this coin for ninety years, so the authors of the Medieval European Coinage expressed doubts about its existence. A census of Asti coins taken by his author in Italian and international museums led to the discovery of four terline of Guglielmo IX. The monogram GV identifies the Marquis of Monferrato and the legend LV D G ASTNSIS EX D (ominus) replaces those hammered on the previous terline of Louis XII. For the first time, the same monogram GV was also discovered on a gold double ducat in the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Wien, previously attributed to Louis XII. These findings definitively confirm that Guglielmo issued at least two types of coins in the Asti mint: terline and double ducats.

        Speaker: Luca Oddone (Socio della Società Numismatica Italiana / Perito Numismatico Cciaa Asti-Alessandria)
      • 207
        The Coat of Arms of Volhynia on Coins of Sigismundus II Augustus, King of Poland

        At first the coat of arms of Volhynia on coins is in the form of a white cross on a red shield, as in 14th-century Lutsk under Prince Dmitry Gediminovych. Two centuries later, the coat of arms appears on silver półkopek and gold ducat coins of Sigismundus II Augustus, King of Poland. The date on the obverse is 1564, over the value of XXX (30 grosz). The shield with the cross of Volhynia is depicted on the reverse.
        The gold ducats were minted with a Latin inscription “Sigismundus Augustus, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania”. On the reverse was a shield with the cross of Volhynia, and a Latin inscription: “gold coin of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania”.
        The king’s portrait is in three variants: with a short beard (1547–1548), with a long beard (1549–1561), with a long and forked beard (1563–1571).

        Speaker: Andrii Venger (South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushynsky)
      • 208
        The first 100 years of the gold florin of Florence (1252-1351): analysis and new research perspectives

        The Florentine gold florin, first minted in 1252, is widely recognized as one of the most famous coins of the Medieval West. A new monograph to be published by the Italian Ministry of Culture in the Bollettino di Numismatica sheds new light on this coinage, presenting the results of a recent PhD research project carried out at the Universities of Granada and Ca’ Foscari of Venice in collaboration with several museums, including the Museo Nazionale Romano (Medagliere) where the collection of Vittorio Emanuele III is preserved. The work includes a complete and updated corpus of the different issues of the gold florin, also taking into account previously unidentified “unsigned” imitations. The new book will be a valuable reference for historians, archaeologists and numismatists expected to contribute to a better understanding of the role that the gold florin played in the so-called Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages in Europe.

        Speaker: Massimo De Benetti (Progetto Collezione di Vittorio Emanuele III, Medagliere del Museo Nazionale Romano, Roma)
      • 209
        Zeichen der falschen Gulden – prints from the late 15th century report on counterfeit coins

        The so-called ‘Zeichen der falschen Gulden’, prints from the late 15th century, warn of forgeries of gold coins, that are supposedly in circulation. Ten different printers located in the southern German region produced those prints, each describing and most of them also depicting the same five gulden.
        Moreover, they report on the responsible forgers, who allegedly already had been caught and punished. The gold coins that served as models for the prints can be identified and placed in relation to the prints. Comparisons of the text and illustrations, as well as specifics of the prints can be used to show connections and dependencies between them. The ‘Zeichen der falschen Gulden’ have a very unofficial character, and mention neither the issuer or the recipient. Furthermore, the poor quality of the illustrations and the insufficient description of the coins make it impossible to identify forgeries using those prints as a guideline.

        Speaker: Agnes Aspetsberger (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien)
    • PS05 GENERAL NUMISTMATICS (COLLECTIONS, DIGITAL ETC)
      • 210
        MeBic Milan Coin Cabinet website: numismatic collection Lagioia

        The large number of requests from researchers and collectors, and new ways to manage digital content offered by the most important international and Italian cultural institutes highlights the need to upload Milan Coin Cabinet collections, now known mainly from printed publications.
        The aim is to make it easier to study the collections and to create a system to find pictures and information to promote research and to spread the heritage knowledge.
        It isn’t possible at this moment to upload the whole Coin Cabinet Collections (ca. 280.000 pieces): it is necessary therefore to start by selecting more significant groups or exemplary categories to start the process.
        The first group is composed of around 200 ancient coins from the archaeological Lagioia collection, which is geographically organized and has been studied and published. The local provenance of many coins in the Lagioia group provides new clues for future research.

        Speakers: Giulia Valli (Gabinetto Numismatico e Medagliere), Rodolfo Martini (Gabinetto Numismatico e Medagliere)
      • 211
        An innovative approach to displaying a Roman coin hoard

        The National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History is opening an exhibition called Really BIG Money that was written and designed with elementary-aged visitors in mind. To represent money that is “big” in quantity, rather than size or denomination, it will feature approximately 170 coins from a Roman hoard arranged in the shape of one very large Roman coin. This innovative design is intended to engage our young visitors and spark their curiosity.
        This project is a collections management challenge in that it requires a great deal of organization, documentation, and creativity to achieve the desired look for the display. Each coin will be individually mounted on a vertical panel and has a unique catalog number that must be tracked. This poster will describe these challenges presented by the design and detail the mounting process used.

        Speaker: Jennifer Gloede (National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution)
      • 212
        Ancient Gold Coins from Maria and dr. George Severeanu collection

        The radiologist George Severeanu was a passionate collector of antiquities (1879-1939). His collection of archaeological objects includes ancient Greek pottery, clay statuettes, bronze and marble objects, Roman glassware, ancient gems and cameos. George Severeanu’s numismatic collection, one of the most valuable in Romania, consists of approximately 9,000 objects from different historical periods. The numismatic material under analysis (62 items) consists of Greek gold and electrum coins struck in the 6th-3rd centuries BC in Asia Minor, Macedonia, Cyprus, Egypt, and Sicily, and additionally, Persian darics and Carthaginian staters. Observations will be presented on staters issued by Philip II, Alexander the Great and Lysimachus, some of them minted in the Greek cities on the Black Sea coast. All of the gold coins, some rare issues found in collections, were subjected to metal analysis.

        Speakers: Aurel Vîlcu (Vasile Pârvan Institute of Archaeology, Romanian Academy), Dan Pîrvulescu (Bucharest Municipality Museum)
      • 213
        Archives and collections of the archaeologist and numismatist Adrien Blanchet: valorization project

        The French archaeologist and numismatist Adrien Blanchet (1866-1957) was the first to start developing several important corpora. In the process of collecting information and making syntheses for systematic publication he made quite a few monetary discoveries, laying the foundations for what would later become the Corpus des trésors monétaires antiques de la France (TAF).
        Recent access to a part of its archives and its collections, which have remained unpublished, makes it possible to consider promoting all its scientific productions kept in several French institutions. This will involve presenting the various funds, then the work and actions to be carried out to make them known and make them usable by all.

        Speaker: Marie-laure Le Brazidec (UMR 5140 (ASM, Montpellier), 5608 (TRACES, Toulouse))
      • 214
        Byzantine coins at the John Max Wulfing Collection in St. Louis

        The John Max Wulfing Collection of Ancient Coins and Related Objects of the Washington University in St. Louis, with ca. 16,000 objects, ranks as one of the largest university collection in the United States. The coins were donated by John Max Wulfing, a St. Louisian businessman, a keen collector of Roman coinage.
        A notable group in the collection are 633 coins of the Byzantine Empire, Anastasius to John VIII, with the largest series being coins issued by Justinian I.
        In this poster I aim to introduce the overall evidence of the Byzantine coins, with particular focus on the hoard of 75 coins of Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180). Despite their attribution to DOC IV.1 they show several legend variants which are not always fully compatible with the DOC classification, showing a great variety in production, and offer valuable insights into this period of numismatic study.

        Speaker: Elena Baldi (Washington University)
      • 215
        Coin hoards in the Vatican Medagliere: an attempt at reconstruction

        Many coin hoards entered the Vatican Medagliere over the centuries and as was common in the past, all coins belonging to a hoard would be separated and placed in different destination sectors. The project currently underway at the Vatican Medagliere aims to reconstruct these hoards - some of them have particularly interesting stories - through the study of archival documents and matching the listed coins with the actual specimens. The paper reports on the progress of our project, focusing on some of the most significant coin hoards, and the history of their discovery and their acquisition.

        Speaker: Eleonora Giampiccolo (Vatican Apostolic Library)
      • 216
        Corpus Nummorum – A Digital Research Infrastructure for Ancient Coins

        Corpus Nummorum is a joint project of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Münzkabinett Berlin, and the Big Data Lab of the University of Frankfurt. It indexes ancient Greek coins from various landscapes across collections and develops typologies. The coins and types are published on a multilingual website using numismatic authority data and FAIR principles.
        As part of the project, the CN Editor was developed as a multifunctional web app that can fully handle the project's data entry workflow and provide extensive search and optimisation functions, as well as various evaluation options. This open-source tool has a modular structure. This allows the Editor to be quickly extended with new functions or adapted to other object types, which makes it interesting for projects beyond numismatics. CN forms a digital research infrastructure that allows and promotes the re-use of aggregated data and unrestricted collaboration with other persons or institutions.

        Speakers: Bernhard Weisser (Münzkabinett Berlin), Claus Franke (Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities), Jan Köster (Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities), Karsten Tolle (Goethe Universität Frankfurt/ Main), Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities)
      • 217
        Developing a Systematic Approach for The Detection of Ancient Coin Counterfeiting

        The forgery and counterfeiting of ancient coins has recently witnessed an alarming increase. This makes authentication of these coins and detection of fakes of a paramount importance. In this poster we propose a systematic step-by-step scientific testing methodology museums can use to confirm the authenticity of coins in their collections, and coins offered to them from different sources. The methodology proposed here involves testing authenticity of coins by subjecting them to a series of tests to determine physical and chemical properties and manufacturing technology using non-destructive scientific methods, including optical microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence.

        Speaker: Mohammad Rababah (Technische Universität Berlin)
      • 218
        DigiNUMA: Digital Solutions for European Numismatic Heritage

        This poster presents the interdisciplinary research project DigiNUMA (University of Helsinki and Aalto University, Finland), which develops a new model for harmonising national and international archaeological datasets for Digital Humanities analysis and public dissemination through Linked Open Data (LOD). DigiNUMA answers challenges and opportunities created by the need for digital solutions stemming from the vastly increased amount of numismatic finds information generated by metal-detecting in those countries (such as Finland and the UK) where recording schemes exist; the pan-European need to develop an internationally operable LOD infrastructure; and necessity of increasing the accessibility of Cultural Heritage data by different users, also from outside the scientific community. DigiNUMA examines the potential offered by ontological research and data harmonisation strategies in developing digital heritage data services to meet these challenges. It extends the FindSampo framework for archaeological finds (see: loytosampo.fi) into a transnational technical solution for Cultural Heritage data management and dissemination.

        Speakers: Eero Hyvönen (Aalto University), Eljas Oksanen (University of Helsinki), Heikki Rantala (Aalto University)
      • 219
        ikmk.net

        Inaugurated on 20 May 2021 the ikmk.net is a new web portal of public numismatic collections.
        Public coin collections, which are using the documentation software of the Münzkabinett Berlin (ikmk.smb.museum), are representing the ikmk family (currently 30 partner institutions). These include the Berlin and Vienna cabinets, the Herzog-Anton-Ulrich-Museum, the Münzkabinett Winterthur, and members of the Network of German University Coin Collections which can be browsed in a shared portal of more than 98,000 individual object entries.
        Other coin collections in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Greece, will be joining ikmk.net.
        Object entries share a common standard using identifiers and Linked Open Data. The use of ikmk.net is free, and licensed by individual Creative Commons statements.
        Any future developments of IKMK will be provided for free to all partners. The use of such shared concepts and identifiers will advance the exchange of data both internally and with international research networks and portals.

        Speakers: Bernhard Weisser (Münzkabinett Berlin), Karsten Dahmen (Münzkabinett Berlin)
      • 220
        Islamic coin studies using Reflectance Transformation Imaging as a non-destructive technical examination of numismatic data documentation

        One of the most important technologies used in the documentation and examination of cultural heritage is Reflectance Transformation Imaging technique (RTI). Because of its many advantages RTI has been widely used in processes of digitization, interpretation, and virtual presentation of ancient coins. This research will focus on the use of the RTI technique in the study, examination, and interpretation of inscriptions of twelve Islamic coins in the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, and to provide an improved access of numismatists to this coinage. Despite the small size of the studied coins, and their lustrous surfaces, the RTI images delivered good results in the virtual exploration and interpretation of the selected coins, and helped to make them available to numismatists in a simple, effective and clear manner.

        Speakers: Almoatzbellah Elshahawi (Metal Conservator at the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities), Hamdy Abdul-Monem (The Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo), Islam Shaheen (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
      • 221
        Linked Open Data and the transformation of coinage weight

        Can Linked Open Data capture the changes in value through changes in the weight of a Roman denomination, and identify them with historically documented events? With Linked Open Data, large amounts of information can be generated without affecting the quality of the data. Consequently, can Linked Open Data and the quantitative approach be used to make scientific statements? A SPARQL query is used for data acquisition to generate a list of all coins of a given denomination. All coins of the queried denomination from collections linked to OCRE are included in statistical analyses. Using this data basis we can show that the quantitative approach can generate good results even when the database is not controllable. Thus, we can demonstrate that historical events definitely coincide with changes in the weight of coinage.

        Speakers: Jonas von Felten (Swiss Inventory of Coin Finds), Myriam Camenzind (University of Bern)
      • 222
        Modern counterfeits of communal period coins of Asti mint (Piedmont, Italy)

        In 2017 the author described four modern counterfeits of communal coins of Asti (1141-1336), two of which are now found in the Fitzwiliam Museum in Cambridge. Their stylistic and epigraphic details suggested they could be the work of the infamous forger Luigi Cigoi. Two years later we identified a gros tournois with unique characteristics. An in-depth analysis and comparison of surface details helped to identify this piece with a reasonable certainty as a modern counterfeit made by lost-wax casting. This coin appears to be identical with a gros tournois kept in the Museo Civico d'Arte Antica in Turin. Currently, the discovery of a new Cigoi-style gros tournois and of a very suspicious cast of a gros tournois auctioned off in 1928, probably obtained by lost-wax casting, leads us to update the state of knowledge and opens up the way for future research.

        Speaker: Luca Oddone (Socio della Società Numismatica Italiana / Perito Numismatico Cciaa Asti-Alessandria)
      • 223
        Numismatic Visual Art Project

        Launched in 2020 the professional Instagram account “numismatisticious” is a visual art project of Greek numismatics in the digital age. The spectrum represented ranges from ancient Greek coins to modern drachmas, including banknotes. Via the social media platform of the Instagram the magnificent imagery of Greek coins and banknotes is transported into a new age. The aim of the "numismatisticious" project is to create a new dialogue between coins as art objects and people through artistic reinterpretation. Instagram offers an optimal virtual space for a digital educational offer that creatively addresses a broad public in a creative way.

        Speaker: Olivia Denk (University of Basel)
      • 224
        Rare cash - digitization and publication of Central German coins finds

        In cooperation with the State Coin Cabinet of the Moritzburg Art Museum in Halle (Saale) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation, the State Office for Monument Preservation and Archaeology in Saxony-Anhalt has embarked on a digital recording and indexing of ca. 18,500 coin finds, medieval to modern age. The digitization and publication of coin finds from Saxony-Anhalt will create a database useful for reconstructing the currency and economic areas in Central Germany. The digitization is carried out using OSCAR (Optical System for Coin Analysis and Recognition) to scan and identify the coins through obtaining their individual “digital fingerprint”. In addition, 2½ D images of each coin are created in just a few minutes. The images and numismatic information on each coin are continuously made available to the public via the KENOM-database.

        Speakers: Anika Tauschensky (State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany), Erik Trostmann (Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation), Veit Dresely (State Office for Monument Preservation and Archaeology in Saxony-Anhalt)
      • 225
        Rise from slumber! Gotha from the forgotten baroque to the digital Coin Cabinet

        Opened in 1713, the Gotha Coin Cabinet at Friedenstein Castle was one of the largest and most important coin collections in Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Marked by a varied history until recently the numismatic collection felt the consequences of the Second World War. Although the coins removed to the USSR in 1945 were returned already in 1958, over 16,000 of the most important pieces in the collection were still missing. Most of these were ancient coins brought to Coburg by the ducal family as a precautionary measure and returned to Friedenstein in 2011. The collection now consists of 145,000 numismatic objects, from antiquity to modern times. They are to be digitised and made available online in the shortest possible time thanks to the “Gotha transdigital2027” project. A brief insight into the innovative approaches used in digitising this important collection will be given.

        Speaker: Marjanko Pilekic (Münzkabinett, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha)
      • 226
        The reconstruction of a lost princely collection and early dealings in coins

        While still a hereditary prince of Hesse-Kassel, Wilhelm I (1743-1821) was an enthusiastic collector of coins and medals. He did not give up this passion as a reigning Elector. His collection was built up in Hanau. Taking office, Wilhelm I took the coins and medals with him to Kassel. When the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel was annexed by Prussia in 1866 the collection became public museum property but was sold in the 1920s. Thus, it is not preserved in its entirety, but the Kestner Museum in Hanover acquired a very large part of the Hanau medals at the 1927 auctions, so that the collection can be partially reconstructed. A reconstructed compilation of its holdings offers insight into the history of the coin trade because Wilhelm I built up his collection with the help of the banker Mayer Amschel Rothschild, who is considered the first coin dealer.

        Speaker: Simone Vogt (Museum August Kestner)
    • RT 5 - ENTANGLED EXCHANGES: MONEY, COINAGE AND COLONIAL PROJECTS Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Fleur Kemmers, Nanouschka Myrberg Burström

      A central theme in colonial history and postcolonial theory is the role of economy in the establishment of power structures. Money, as means of exchange and as means of payment, plays important roles in the introduction of new practices, value standards and material realities. Commodification processes strongly affect power relations in the interactions between coloniser and colonised. Surprisingly, coinage was rarely discussed in this connection and numismatic scholarship has not really contributed much to the debate.
      Postcolonial perspectives have developed in cultural-historical research since the 1990s. In this process, the study of the material culture of colonisation has crystallised as a central component of the field. As we have postulated before, coins have much to gain from being investigated from a theoretical standpoint and a material culture perspective. Thus, bringing coinage prominently into the debate on ancient and recent colonial practices seems long overdue.
      Coinage offers unique opportunities to study interactions and effects of the meeting between colonisers and colonised, as well as economic, political and ideological interactions between colonisers and their state of origin. Be it the Greek colonies in Southern Italy or the European colonial enterprises of the Modern period, coins reflect historical events as well as hybridisation processes. They are characterised as entangled between local groups, colonial power and global networks. We suggest that the study of coins and other means of exchange – adopted, adapted or refuted – may reveal less apparent and under-communicated processes, values and discourses in the study of colonial environments and projects.
      We aim to discuss particularly interesting cases, raise awareness of the numismatic material’s potential within the field of postcolonial studies, and investigate theoretical and methodological keys for such studies.

      List of panelists:
      Fleur Kemmer
      John Creighton
      Georgia Galani
      Rory Naismith
      Florent Audy
      Nanouschka Myrberg Burström
      Karin Pallaver
      María Gabriela Huidobro

      Conveners: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University)
      • 227
        Entangled exchanges: money, coinage and colonial projects - Introduction
        Speakers: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University)
      • 228
        Massalia’s radically different monetary impact: north and south
        Speaker: John Creighton (University of Reading, UK)
      • 229
        Provincial minting under early Roman hegemony: the case of the Greek East
        Speaker: Georgia Galani (Stockholm University, Sweden)
      • 230
        Discussion of papers of John Creighton & Georgia Galant

        Plus additional 10 min. break

        Speakers: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm), Georgia Galani (Stockholm University, Sweden), John Creighton (University of Reading, UK), Karin Pallaver (University of Bologna, Italy), María Gabriela Huidoboro (Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University), Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 231
        Viking money and colonisation in ninth-century England
        Speaker: Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 232
        Hybrid dirhams on Rus’ markets. Coins and colonisation along the Varangian trade routes in the tenth century AD
        Speaker: Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm)
    • S07. GREECE 7. SICILY AND BEYOND Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Suzanne Frey-Kupper (University of Warwick)
      • 233
        The bronze coinage of Hieronimus of Syracuse between posthumous series, parallel strikings and organizational changes

        Bronze coins were barely mentioned in Holloway's monograph (1969) on the series issued in the name of Hieronymus of Syracuse, who reigned for 13 months (215-214 BC) due to the belief that the difficulty of taking good quality images and wear make it impossible to reconstruct the die-sequence. HD photography and new materials now at hand have removed this challenge. Starting with the large sample of coins from the Megara Hyblaea 1967 hoard, it was possible to reconstruct the succession of control-marks used, the change in the responsibilities connected to them, to find new proof of the operation of parallel workshops, and of a posthumous and contemporary striking of a large part of the "tridents" in the name of Hieron II, by the same controllers, who apparently also minted the Republican series. The data sheds light on the Syracusan ways of participating in the Second Punic War.

        Speaker: Benedetto Carroccio (Università della Calabria - Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici)
      • 234
        The hoard of Cala Tramontana in Pantelleria (Trapani-Sicily): preliminary observations

        The hoard, still unpublished, was found in 2011 in the waters off Cala Tramontana, along the eastern coast of the island of Pantelleria. It consists of over 3000 Punic bronze coins belonging to the IA series in the Forteleoni classification (1961) with a female head / equine protome (300-264 BC). This contribution will present some reflections on the structure of this assemblage and some observations about its archaeological context and information offered by historical sources, in order to advance interpretative hypotheses regarding the nature of the hoard and the causes of its non-recovery.

        Speaker: Lavinia Sole (Università degli Studi di Palermo )
      • 235
        The Coinage of Cossyra (modern Pantelleria)

        Archaeological excavations of the acropolis of the ancient city of Cossyra (modern Pantelleria) have been in progress for over twenty years now. Coin finds from this site offer new insights into the monetary circulation on the island, assisting attribution of some coins to the mint of Cossyra. Coins with the name of the island in the legend exist in Punic and Latin letters, but the date of this change of language is uncertain: was it associated with the Roman conquest of the island in 217 B.C., or is this change unrelated to this development? Furthermore, the coin finds have helped attribute some coins of uncertain mints to the workshop of Cossyra. How do these coins relate to those previously known? Some coins can be dated using the excavated evidence, but the coinage of Cossyra is still in need of a more extensive analysis.

        Speaker: Martin Ziegert (Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH )
      • 236
        A small personal touch: graffiti on Carthaginian gold coins

        Even if the study of coin graffiti has been revived for several years, Punic coins have been left out, despite the interest that such a study has for the understanding of a coinage which remains poorly understood in many respects.
        This communication aims to approach this subject from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. Firstly, the large corpus available allows us to identify trends in the occurrence of graffiti depending on individual series. It may be seen that Carthaginian gold is more affected than silver. And within the gold coinage, two groups issued ca 300 BC are more affected than others. On an individual scale, the diversity of the graffiti is also apparent, especially for the gold coins (Punic letters, Greek letters, traces more difficult to identify...). These elements could provide insights into the uses of coins struck by Carthage and their users.

        Speaker: Jérémy Artru (Université d'Orléans / IRAMAT-CEB )
    • S24. ANTIQUITY 4. ANCIENT THRACE – A REGION OF COINAGE DIVERSITY Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org.: Lily Grozdanova, chair: Ulrike Peter, Selene Psoma

      Ancient Thrace was a region with multiple monetary systems and some of the earliest coinages. The intensive scholarly interest in these diverse coinages starts in the 18th c. and continues uninterrupted to the modern digital era. The intensification of the archaeological investigations in the region in the last century and a half has brought to light enormous quantities of materials, a substantial part of which are the numismatic artefacts which leave a crucial number of questions open for analysis.
      The recent implementation of digital technologies in the research has changed the paradigm of historical and numismatic study permanently and essentially. It calls for scientific debates, the development of new methodologies for the reevaluation of existing theories and the formulation of new. They could affect historical knowledge beyond the local level of Thrace, due to the complexity of the region as a meeting point of multiple civilizations and identity constructs in Antiquity. A wide range of research questions is open as regards the coinages, confirming the value of coins as a complex historical source.
      Thrace offers key numismatic topics such as the specifics of the Thracian tribe coinages; the interpretation and analysis of the coinages of the Thracian Chersonese; the economic and cultural interactions of the Greek colonies; the Roman monetary system combining central and local monetary and economic practices and concepts. The abundance of themes is a strong argument that the only functional form for the current proposal is a double session.
      The potential audience is a wide circle of international experts, representing universities, research centres, museums, auction houses etc. The importance of the region's interdisciplinary approach makes this event attractive for scholars from many areas of Ancient world studies.

      Convener: Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Der Wissenschaften)
      • 237
        Money and the Odrysian Rulers: paying the patrios phoros

        The electrum stater of Cyzicus was the most significant currency in the Propontis and the Black Sea region from the mid-5th c. BC to the reign of Alexander III, as revealed by literary sources, epigraphic evidence, hoards and occasional finds. These coins were minted in large numbers and several types referring not only to Cyzicus. In a recently published article, I proposed to explain this currency in relation to the needs of others, Greek cities and local satraps, using combined evidence from literary sources and coins related to other coinages of the area. The aim of my paper is to propose an explanation for this phenomenon in relation to the Odrysian rulers and the Greek cities of Thrace, and associate these coins with the payment, inter alia, of the so-called patrios phoros, mentioned in Thucydides and epigraphic evidence.

        Speaker: Selene Psoma (National and Capodistrian University of Athens)
      • 238
        The hemidrachms of the Thracian Chersonese and their political environment

        The small silver uninscribed coins showing a lion protome on the obverse and a quadripartite incuse square on the reverse are known in the numismatic literature as “the hemidrachms of the Thracian Chersonese''. They form one of the main currencies in Thrace during the 4th century BC. Only recently their intensive issue, together with the other poleis on the peninsula, has been revisited in some new studies (cf. Peter van Alfen, Selene Psoma, Angela Berthold, Boryana Russeva, and the author of this presentation). The publicationof several important hoards containing Chersonesan coins now makes it possible to address questions about the typology (distinguishing at least 200 coin groups) or narrow down the dating of these coins. The present study offers some observations with regard to the next level of inquiry: which authority is behind this copious coinage, and what are the reasons for its introduction.

        Speaker: Julia Tzvetkova (Sofia University)
      • 239
        Pre-Roman Bronze Coinage of the Settlements on the Thracian Chersonese

        The so-called Thracian Chersonese, today the Gallipoli / Gelibolu Peninsula, has always been an important strategic point as a bridge between Europe and Asia. The peninsula extends parallel to the coast of Asia Minor, with the Hellespont between the two. The coinages of most Greek coastal settlements situated there were short-lived, represented by a small volume of bronzes of different denominations. The towns of Alepokonnesos and Kardia occupied the shore closer to the Thracian Coast, while Elaious, Madytos, Sestos, Aigospotamoi, Paktye and Krithote were found on the shore opposite Asia Minor. Except for Kardia and Alopekonnesos they have not been the subject of much numismatic research. This paper aims to give an overview of their coinage in pre-Roman times, with particular attention on coin designs, chronology, denominational fractions and contacts.

        Speaker: Angela Berthold (Münzkabinett Berlin)
    • S34. CELTIC COINS 3. CELTIC NUMISMATICS IN THE DIGITAL AGE Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Org.: David Wigg-Wolf, Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier, chair: David Wigg-Wolf, Katherine Gruel

      Within the context of the Digital Turn, Celtic coins present a number of distinct challenges, but at the same time also chances. In contrast to many other ancient coinages, for example Hellenistic or Roman, for which structures of production are clearly recognisable and standardized typologies have been developed and published, Celtic issues still remain to some extent a “chaos impénétrable” (Colbert de Beaulieu). We often know very little about the actual infrastructures behind conception, production and issue, who was the active issuing authority, whether there were permanently established mints or instead coins were produced on an ad hoc basis, perhaps by travelling moneyers. The when and where of production are also often difficult to determine closely. A further characteristic of many coins series is a gradual development of the iconography, rather than clear transitions between distinguishable types, resulting in typologies that are often essentially subjective attempts to impose a structure on what is in reality more a fluid mass.
      The session will concentrate on two aspects of how these distinctive characteristics of Celtic coins shape digital projects.
      Four papers will address the challenges faced by databases in structuring data on what are often seemingly unstructured coinages. A particular focus will be on the role and application thereby of Linked Open Data.
      However, the fluidity of the iconography and the resulting variety of individual coins also means that they provide an ideal testing ground for the employment of digital methods such as image recognition and machine learning. A further four papers will thus present digital projects addressing the development of typologies and automated die studies.

      Conveners: David Wigg-Wolf (Römisch-Germansiche Kommission), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL)
      • 240
        Image recognition applied to the hoard of Le Câtillon II

        The hoard of Le Câtillon II found in 2012 in Jersey contains almost 70,000 Celtic coins. It took enormous manpower and time (including 25 volunteers) taking apart the hoard, generating pictures and also to do a first identification of each single coin. Currently, die studies are still ongoing and it would probably take another several decades to finish them based on the eyes of an expert only.
        Within our project called Classifications and Representations for Networks (ClaReNet) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) this hoard is one of three cases to apply and evaluate IT-based methods to support the processes, ranging from pre-sorting the coins to clustering them into die related sets.
        So far, we can say that our first approaches with unsupervised and supervised deep-learning of smaller process steps are extremely promising. However, it remains extremely important to keep the expert in the loop.

        Speakers: Chrisowalandis Deligio (Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main), Karsten Tolle (Goethe Universität Frankfurt/ Main), Philip De Jersey (Culture and Heritage, States of Guernsey)
      • 241
        The contribution of 3D digitalisation to the study of Celtic coins from the Riedones (Fr, 35)

        The fine 3D digitalisation (to 1/10 of a micron) of coins leads to a wide variety of uses both in terms of research and the enhancement of collections. Our work aimed first of all to provide a dataset to identify dies by "deep learning". The 3D process erases colours and shading, and brings out details that have almost been erased. Then, from several pieces, a more complete picture of the dies was reconstructed. The classes of the Riedonan billon were redefined on the basis of the Liffré (Fr, 35) hoard. This has facilitated the iconographic study of this series. In addition, it has been possible to follow the evolution of the diesbreaks, and to evaluate the volume of issues. These scans also open up interesting museographic exploitations, allowing highly magnified views, specific focus on details and 3D prints at various scales.

        Speakers: Benjamin Houal (Atelier d’archeologie 3D Grenoble), Caroline Plumel (AOrOc_CNRS-ENS-PSL), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL), Olivier Masson (AOrOC), Thierry Lejars (ENS Ulm, PSL University)
      • 242
        3D scanning of celtic coins and Deep Learning to identify monetary dies

        To cluster thousands of coins, automatic methods are necessary. Public datasets for coin die clustering evaluation are too rare, despite their importance for the development of new methods using Artificial Intelligence. Therefore, with our dataset of 2070 3D scans of coins, we create two benchmarks, one for point cloud registration, essential for coin die recognition, and a benchmark of coin die clustering. We show how we automatically built the dataset and perform a preliminary evaluation. The code of the baseline and the dataset are publicly available. These results have been obtained by new developments using 3D imaging and the registration of 3D images by deep learning methods. We will present the die recognition algorithm with a visualisation tool with the possibility of excluding links between two coins that are rejected, and obtain an automatic redistribution of sets of coins from the same die.

        Speakers: François Goulette (Mines Paris, PSL University), Jean-Emmanuel Deschaud (Mines Paris, PSL University), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL), Sofiane Horache (Mines Paris, PSL University), Thierry Lejars (ENS Ulm, PSL University)
      • 243
        The Manerbio hoard (Lombardia, Italia) and 3D digitization: the rediscovery of Cisalpine Gaul drachms

        The 16 kg hoard of Padanian drachmas was discovered at Manerbio in 1955. Its size is exceptional, its composition remarkable: the deposit is divided into three series, attributed to three Cisalpine peoples: the Cenomans, the Insubres and the Libui (?) (ARSLAN 2017). Recent metal analyses established that these three series of coins were minted from the same silver stock. This unusual assemblage raises questions about the function of such a hoard.
        The Manerbio hoard, now in the Brescia Museum, has been undergoing 3D digitization since February 2022. The Toutiopouos epigraph series is the first to be digitized. The aim is to obtain a database for an in-depth die study. By using 3D technology, a better reading of the coin types and legends is possible. This will bring new elements to the understanding of the complex monetary system of the Padanian coinage.

        Speakers: Elodie Paris (Ecole française de Rome), Ermano Arslan (Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei), Francesca Morandini (Fondazione Brescia Musei), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL), Serena Solano (Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le Province di Bergamo e Brescia)
    • S55. ROME 21. MANUFACTURE AND USE OF COUNTERFEIT ROMAN IMPERIAL DENARII IN BARBARICUM Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Org.: Arkadiusz Dymowski, chair: Jarosław Bodzek

      Until recently there was a widespread conviction that Roman denarii from 1st-2nd centuries AD discovered to the north of the Danubian limes and to the east of the Rhine limes, almost invariably genuine coins of official issue, should be treated only as an evidence of the influx of Roman coinage to Barbaricum and their redistribution within this region. However, nowadays we could make a hypothesis that the products of unauthorised workshops spread in the barbarian territories to the same extent, or even more so, than within the Empire. The pool of counterfeit Imperial denarii is represented by e.g., plated coins (denarii subaerati) and coins cast of silver-like base metal alloys (denarii flati). One of the most surprising outcomes of recent studies is that at least some of these coins, both denarii subaerati and denarii flati, were manufactured locally in the Barbaricum. This is sufficiently supported by materials from Ukraine where the remnants of workshops producing counterfeit denarii have been recently discovered.
      The conclusion that the Barbarians not only used, but also produced counterfeit denarii is of great importance for the research on the use of Roman coinage in the territory outside the limes. We may suppose that Roman Imperial denarii were used in the barbarian society as a currency, but not to the same extent as within the Empire. They could serve as a standard value, also as a means of payment and/or means of exchange apparently resembling the currency circulation. In this context the most probable hypothesis about the counterfeit denarii in Barbaricum could be very simple: they were made for material gain and to deceive the users, like other counterfeit coins produced for centuries in various parts of the world

      Convener: Jarosław Bodzek (Jagiellonian University)
      • 244
        Denarii flati

        Recent years have seen an increase of information about new finds of unofficial copies of Roman imperial denarii made by casting and a progress in research. While earlier workshops for the production of such coins were known in the Roman provinces, currently there is more evidence for the existence of such workshops in the Barbaricum. At the moment, the greatest concentration of the production of cast denarius coins (at least six workshops) is noted on the territory of modern Ukraine, which in the Late Roman archaeological period was inhabited by the communities of the archaeological Chernyakhiv culture. Most of these coins are made of copper, tin and/or lead-based metal alloys, but some of them are made of high-quality silver as well. In my paper, I propose to use the Latin word “flati” for cast copies of Roman coins, which actually means “manufactured by casting”.

        Speaker: Kyrylo Myzgin (University of Warsaw)
      • 245
        Counterfeit Roman Imperial denarii discovered in Western Moldavia (Romania)

        Made either by striking or casting, counterfeit Roman Imperial denarii have been attested on the territory of western Moldavia (Romania). Denarii subaerati, produced by striking, are the most numerous, with approximately the same number noted in hoards (more than 30 pcs.), and among single finds (more than 20 pcs.). Finds of cast denarii are limited at present to specimens found in a single hoard (Iezer), and an individual find. The material of all the cast coins determined by XRF analysis is Cu-Sn-PB alloy. It is difficult to establish if counterfeit denarii found in Western Moldavia were manufactured within the Barbaricum, or were imported from the Roman provinces (Dacia or Moesia Inferior). Other issues related to this specific category of coinage under discussion include their chronological frames and the identity (Dacian or Goth)? of local user communities.

        Speakers: Gabriel-mircea Talmațchi (The National History and Archaeology Museum of Constanța), Lucian Munteanu (Romanian Academy, Institute of Archaeology from Iași)
      • 246
        Irregular Roman Coins from Roman and Migration periods settlements in western Lesser Poland,

        In recent decades interest in finds of irregularly issued Roman coins in the Central and Eastern European Barbaricum has increased significantly. In the area of the Przeworsk culture, the starting point was excavation of a Roman and Migration period settlement in Jakuszowice where a significant number of subaerati were identified. Over the last few years the intensification of the process of coin find registration and the increased number of archaeological excavations of Roman and Migration period settlements in western Lesser Poland have resulted in a significant increase in the material available for research. This new research demonstrated the presence of irregular Roman denarii other than subaerati (e.g. tin-lead bronze imitations). In this paper we present the results of the analysis of coin finds from twenty Roman and Migration period settlements in western Lesser Poland, with particular reference to irregular issues.

        Speakers: Barbara Zając (Independent Researcher), Jan Bulas (Arch Foundation), Jarosław Bodzek (Jagiellonian University), Szymon Jellonek (University of Warsaw)
      • 247
        Manufacture and use of Roman Imperial denarii subaerati in Barbaricum

        A major increase in the volume of finds of Roman Imperial denarii subaerati (plated denarii) in Barbaricum noted in recent years has contributed to expandingour understanding of the occurrence of these coins on this territory. It is more than likely that some of these subaerati were manufactured in eastern areas of the Barbaricum at least since the end of the 3rd century. Of course this does not mean that all subaerati found in Barbaricum were made in Barbaricum, but this is still a very surprising conclusion since until recently all the subaerati recovered in Barbaricum were interpreted as imports from the territory of the Empire. Thanks to new finds the research on subaerati turns out to be crucial for understanding of the role of Roman Imperial denarii among the Barbarians until the mid-first millennium CE.

        Speaker: Arkadiusz Dymowski (University of Warsaw)
    • S69. MIDDLE AGES 7. 12 TH-13TH CENTURIES, POLAND Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Conveners: Borys Paszkiewicz (University of Wrocław), Marek Jankowiak (University of Oxford)
      • 248
        The discovery of the second medieval hoard from Słuszków

        The first Słuszków Hoard was found in 1935. Dated to the first years of the 12th century, it contained 13,061 coins, mainly late cross pennies, 7 silver flans and 33 silver ornaments. For many years, numerous attempts were made to establish the exact findspot, but without success. In 2020, during a new archaeological survey a second hoard was unexpectedly discovered in Słuszków, similar in chronology and composition to the first deposit. Not less importantly, its ceramic container was only slightly damaged – all the coins had remained within, which enabled a thorough investigation of the site of discovery and the pot itself. The second hoard numbers about 6,500 coins and a few ornaments, including four gold rings. Both finds must be related and most likely were hidden at the same time.

        Speakers: Adam Kędzierski, Michał Zawadzki (The Royal Castle in Warsaw – Museum )
      • 249
        Medieval hoard of Głogów — unsolved mystery of Polish coinage from the end of 12th c.

        Polish coinage of the late 12th century remains an unsolved mystery in many ways. Written sources and archaeological evidence for this period were scarce until the discovery in October 1987 in Głogów of one of the largest hoards in Poland and Europe. The hoard comprises nearly 23,000 small silver deniers and fragments. The earliest coins are issues of German margraves and bishops from the 11th/12th century. Then there are coins of the Polish duke Boleslaus III the Wrymouth (1102-1138) and his sons, from the early phase of the feudal fragmentation. These have a reliably substantiated attribution and chronology. The latest group are a few types of denier, counted in hundreds and thousands. Their attribution is very problematic — a possible source is Silesia, part of Poland. The study of this group of coins can shed new light on at least a part of the mystery of late 12th-century Polish coinage.

        Speaker: Krystian Książek (Muzeum Archeologiczno-Historyczne w Głogowie )
      • 250
        Origins of the recoinage in Poland in the light of new research

        The first mention in written sources confirming periodic recoinage in Poland relates to the 1170s suggesting a well-developed process. Therefore its origins presumably go back to an earlier period, the reign of Bolesław III the Wrymouth (1102–1138). Coins of six types were attributed to this ruler. According to the current state of research, some types were replaced by others from the beginning of his rule as a part of recoinage.
        However, the latest numismatic studies show that the volume of this issue was not uniform. It increased significantly in the second half of the prince's reign, which is reflected not only by a greater number of dies, but also the structure of the die-chains. These data suggest that Bolesław introduced recoinage during his reign and its beginnings were not a cyclical process. Moreover, unlike in other European countries, only one, central mint was in operation.

        Speaker: Grzegorz Śnieżko (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Polish Academy of Sciences )
    • S85. MEDALS 3. EUROPE Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Agnieszka Smołucha-Sładkowska (National Museum in Kraków)
      • 251
        Plagues, epidemic deseases and natural disasters through papal medals

        On March 27th, 2020 a special event moved the whole of humanity regardless of religious beliefs: the Pope of the Catholic Church, alone in a completely empty Piazza san Pietro, and in the darkness of a rainy evening, raised a prayer to the God of all people to free us from the terrible pandemic that is overwhelming our lives. It is not the first time that Peter's successors have performed such gestures on the occasion of plagues, epidemic diseases and natural disasters. Some papal medals are linked to these actions of the Supreme Pontiffs, issued to commemorate the measures taken to alleviate people's sufferings, to thank God for his intervention in facing such tragic events, and to immortalize in metallic form the prayers of the Popes in times of troubles. This contribution intends to illustrate some of the most significant of these metallic records issued over the centuries by Popes and present their history.

        Speaker: Eleonora Giampiccolo (Vatican Apostolic Library)
      • 252
        Current Research on Medallic Art in Germany

        Contemporary medals provide an artistic commentary on perspectives on history and culture. Topics range from global phenomena to subjective emotions. As such, contemporary medallic art has great potential as a source for several disciplines. Next to numismatic expertise the study of medals requires knowledge of social, political, and cultural spheres as well as historical events.
        From the time of its inception the Münzkabinett in Berlin has maintained its role of a centre of research on medallic art. The German Society of Medallic Art and the Gitta-Kastner-Research-Foundation (as an institution of the Numismatic Committee of the Federal States of Germany) support research on medallists and their work. A major focus is placed on assessing art medals in a digital environment.
        The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it will provide an overview of current research projects. Secondly, it attempts to contextualize German research structures on medallic art in a more global perspective.

        Speaker: Johannes Eberhardt (Münzkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin )
      • 253
        The Lloyd's Medal for Saving Life at Sea

        This paper explores the stylistic and compositional influences on the Lloyd's Medal for Saving Life at Sea, engraved by William Wyon in 1836. It suggests that Wyon, who is credited with the original design, assembled a collage of disparate elements which nevertheless act in harmony, resulting in a successful and enduring example of neoclassical composition.

        Speaker: Tom Hockenhull (British Museum)
    • 4:30 PM
      Coffe break
    • RT 5 - ENTANGLED EXCHANGES: MONEY, COINAGE AND COLONIAL PROJECTS Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org. and moderator: Fleur Kemmers, Nanouschka Myrberg Burström

      A central theme in colonial history and postcolonial theory is the role of economy in the establishment of power structures. Money, as means of exchange and as means of payment, plays important roles in the introduction of new practices, value standards and material realities. Commodification processes strongly affect power relations in the interactions between coloniser and colonised. Surprisingly, coinage was rarely discussed in this connection and numismatic scholarship has not really contributed much to the debate.
      Postcolonial perspectives have developed in cultural-historical research since the 1990s. In this process, the study of the material culture of colonisation has crystallised as a central component of the field. As we have postulated before, coins have much to gain from being investigated from a theoretical standpoint and a material culture perspective. Thus, bringing coinage prominently into the debate on ancient and recent colonial practices seems long overdue.
      Coinage offers unique opportunities to study interactions and effects of the meeting between colonisers and colonised, as well as economic, political and ideological interactions between colonisers and their state of origin. Be it the Greek colonies in Southern Italy or the European colonial enterprises of the Modern period, coins reflect historical events as well as hybridisation processes. They are characterised as entangled between local groups, colonial power and global networks. We suggest that the study of coins and other means of exchange – adopted, adapted or refuted – may reveal less apparent and under-communicated processes, values and discourses in the study of colonial environments and projects.
      We aim to discuss particularly interesting cases, raise awareness of the numismatic material’s potential within the field of postcolonial studies, and investigate theoretical and methodological keys for such studies.

      List of panelists:
      Fleur Kemmer
      John Creighton
      Georgia Galani
      Rory Naismith
      Florent Audy
      Nanouschka Myrberg Burström
      Karin Pallaver
      María Gabriela Huidobro

      Conveners: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University)
      • 254
        Discussion of papers of Rory Naismith & Floren Andy
        Speakers: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm), Georgia Galani (Stockholm University, Sweden), John Creighton (University of Reading, UK), Karin Pallaver (University of Bologna, Italy), María Gabriela Huidoboro (Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University), Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 255
        Crusades, colonies and coins: Western colonial strategies in the medieval Eastern Mediterranean
        Speaker: Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University)
      • 256
        East African societies, colonialism and the materiality of money
        Speaker: Karin Pallaver (University of Bologna, Italy)
      • 257
        Discussion of papers of Nanouschka Myrberg Burström & Karin Pallaver
        Speakers: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm), Georgia Galani (Stockholm University, Sweden), John Creighton (University of Reading, UK), Karin Pallaver (University of Bologna, Italy), María Gabriela Huidoboro (Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University), Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
      • 258
        Final discussion: patterns, processes and discrepant experiences

        moderated by Fleur Kemmers and Nanouschka Myrberg Burström

        Speakers: Fleur Kemmers (Goethe University), Florent Audy (National Historical Museums, Stockholm), Georgia Galani (Stockholm University, Sweden), John Creighton (University of Reading, UK), Karin Pallaver (University of Bologna, Italy), Nanouschka Myrberg Burström (Stockholm University), Rory Naismith (University of Cambridge)
    • S08. GREECE 8. NORTH-WESTERN GREECE AND MACEDONIA Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Jarosław Bodzek (Jagiellonian University)
      • 259
        The coin hoards from Carevi Kuli, Strumica (North Macedonia)

        Archaeological excavations on the site Carevi Kuli, Strumica brought in a significant amount of numismatic material, including 262 individual finds, 8 mini-hoards (3 to 11 pcs.) and 3 hoards (18 to 21 pcs). Carevi Kuli is located on a hill which rises southwest of the city of Strumica where important ancient roads intersected: the ancient road Astibo-Astrajon-Dober-Idomene-Thessaloniki. Two of the mini hoards belong to the Macedonian king Perseus (179-168 BC), three date to the beginning of the 4th century, one comprises coins from the first half of the 4th century, one mini hoard dates to the middle of the 4th century, and one to the second half of the 4th century. The large hoards include a group of coins from autonomous regions and cities, from the cities of Amphipolis, Pella and Thessalonica (the reign of Philip V and Perseus, 187/6-168 BC), two coin hoards date to the late 4th century.

        Speaker: Sanja Bitrak (Archaeological Museum of North Macedonia )
      • 260
        Autonomous and Equal: The Khaones of Epeiros and the Epeirote Koinon in 234/3 BC

        Dated to c. 250-210 on independent grounds, a newly published bronze khalkous (1.9g) of the Khaones (E. Baldi and W. Bubelis in Butrint 7) likely belongs to the dynamic political situation in Epeiros in 234/3 BC, when the Molossian Kingdom fell and its partner the Epeirote Symmachy was replaced by the Epeirote Koinon. The new khalkous features types (Artemis/thunderbolt in wreath with abbreviated ethnikon) that are consistent with earlier Khaonian coins and yet closely parallel contemporary issues of the Molossians and the Symmachy. The khalkous thus expresses not only the Khaones’ equal and independent status with respect to the other Epeirotes but also the Khaones’ shared identity as Epeirotes at a key moment when their political relationships required negotiation. By functioning as a symbol of Khaonian claims to autonomy, therefore, the khalkous therefore provides important new evidence for how the Khaones positioned themselves in the formation of the new Koinon.

        Speaker: William Bubelis (Washington University in St. Louis, John Max Wulfing Collection of Ancient Coins and Related Objects)
      • 261
        [⊝ not streamed] The Palaiopolis hoard and circulation of drachmas in late hellenistic Corcyra

        In 1995 a hoard of 508 coins was found inside the wall of a late Hellenistic building in the Kasfiki field, at Palaiopolis on the island of Kerkyra, Greece. The archaeological context indicates the Kasfiki hoard was probably buried in the late third century BCE during the siege of Kerkyra by Pyrrhus of Epirus. This hoard is of great interest because it includes only silver drachms and hemidrachms from the ancient Greek cities of Corinth and Kerkyra. The coins of Corinth predominate, making up two thirds of the total. The coins range in condition from heavy wear, resulting from circulation, to unused. The importance of the hoard lies not only in what it may indicate about the circulation of coinage, but also of continuing trade connections between Kerkyra and its metropolis. Also, the relative chronology of the later Corinthian drachms remains uncertain and this hoard sheds light on that issue, too.

        Speakers: Georgia Tsouvala (Illinois State University ), Goulielma-Kyriaki Avgerinou, Lee Brice (Western Illinois University)
    • S24. ANTIQUITY 4. ANCIENT THRACE – A REGION OF COINAGE DIVERSITY Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org.: Lily Grozdanova, chair: Ulrike Peter, Selene Psoma

      Ancient Thrace was a region with multiple monetary systems and some of the earliest coinages. The intensive scholarly interest in these diverse coinages starts in the 18th c. and continues uninterrupted to the modern digital era. The intensification of the archaeological investigations in the region in the last century and a half has brought to light enormous quantities of materials, a substantial part of which are the numismatic artefacts which leave a crucial number of questions open for analysis.
      The recent implementation of digital technologies in the research has changed the paradigm of historical and numismatic study permanently and essentially. It calls for scientific debates, the development of new methodologies for the reevaluation of existing theories and the formulation of new. They could affect historical knowledge beyond the local level of Thrace, due to the complexity of the region as a meeting point of multiple civilizations and identity constructs in Antiquity. A wide range of research questions is open as regards the coinages, confirming the value of coins as a complex historical source.
      Thrace offers key numismatic topics such as the specifics of the Thracian tribe coinages; the interpretation and analysis of the coinages of the Thracian Chersonese; the economic and cultural interactions of the Greek colonies; the Roman monetary system combining central and local monetary and economic practices and concepts. The abundance of themes is a strong argument that the only functional form for the current proposal is a double session.
      The potential audience is a wide circle of international experts, representing universities, research centres, museums, auction houses etc. The importance of the region's interdisciplinary approach makes this event attractive for scholars from many areas of Ancient world studies.

      Convener: Selene Psoma (National and Capodistrian University of Athens)
      • 262
        The Emergency Coinage of Charidemos in The Troad

        According to the generally accepted view coins bearing the head of goddess r. on the obverse and spearhead with legend X A on the reverse were struck at Chalkis in Aiolis. Currently their circulation has been confirmed in the Troad, especially in Kebren and its vicinity. As there is no city in the region with a name starting with “Xa”, these coins could have be minted by Charidemos, a famous mercenary commander, during the Great Satrap’s Revolt in the Troad. According to ancient sources, Charidemos took control of the region, capturing Kebren, Skepsis and Ilion in the Skamander Valley, to establish an autonomous princedom in 360 B.C. Faced with financial problems and in need of money to pay his troops he could be the authority behind striking the coins bearing the XA legend.

        Speaker: Dinçer Savas Lenger (Department of History, Akdeniz University, Antalya)
      • 263
        Adaios and his Coinage Revisited

        Despite its key role in the current historical discourse, the early Hellenistic coinage of Adaios is, at the same time, one of the most controversial topics in Thracian numismatics. After a half-century long discussion, the identity of this figure, as well as the chronology of his coins and the location of the mint, remain uncertain. While taking into account both textual and material numismatic evidence, this paper reassesses the issue from the perspective of archaeological evidence, whose potential, in our view, has yet to be fully exploited.

        Speakers: Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Der Wissenschaften), Vladimir Stolba (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Münzkabinett)
      • 264
        Iconographic Interactions between the Roman Provinces of Thrace, Pontus Bithynia and Asia Minor

        The Roman world was flooded by images; images which carried cultural, religious, ethical and political messages. They could be encountered everywhere, from jewellry to public and private buildings, and obviously, on coins issued by the imperial and the provincial mints alike.
        The issues of the cities the Roman province of Thrace appeared just after the integration into the Roman Empire. However, it was not until the mid-2nd century AD that the majority of the cities start to issue coins with an iconography pointing either to local religious and cultural identities, or to imperial virtues in a propagandistic way. A distinct group with what at a first glance appear to be local iconographic topics, it evidently has parallels in neighboring provinces.
        Consequently, the aim of this presentation is to highlight the iconographic interactions between Thrace and the neighboring provinces of Pontus-Bithynia and Asia Minor, and to shed light on their causes.

        Speaker: Marina Tasaklaki (Ephorate of Antiquities of Rhodope, Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports)
      • 265
        Digital Numismatics from the User Perspective

        Technological development has introduced an entirely new research environment. Due to the need for new types of scientific resources, and access to the materials, Digital Numismatics (DN) has become a field of dynamically developed tools and research databases.
        The number of operating products is already impressive, and the topic of the user perspective on their actual implementation in the research becomes significant. Questions such as: how the new tools change the workflow; is there a quantifiable added value of the digital environment; is there a data distortion danger; how important the previous professional numismatic experience of the user is; etc., need to be posed.
        This paper aims to present DN from the user perspective, basing on the experience of the authors with two mints from Thrace, Apollonia Pontica and Pautalia. These examples allow observations both on Greek and Roman numismatics in a region currently proactively engaged in several digital projects.

        Speakers: Hristina Ivanova-Anaplioti (University of Zurich), Lily Grozdanova (Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”)
    • S34. CELTIC COINS 3. CELTIC NUMISMATICS IN THE DIGITAL AGE Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Org.: David Wigg-Wolf, Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier, chair: David Wigg-Wolf, Katherine Gruel

      Within the context of the Digital Turn, Celtic coins present a number of distinct challenges, but at the same time also chances. In contrast to many other ancient coinages, for example Hellenistic or Roman, for which structures of production are clearly recognisable and standardized typologies have been developed and published, Celtic issues still remain to some extent a “chaos impénétrable” (Colbert de Beaulieu). We often know very little about the actual infrastructures behind conception, production and issue, who was the active issuing authority, whether there were permanently established mints or instead coins were produced on an ad hoc basis, perhaps by travelling moneyers. The when and where of production are also often difficult to determine closely. A further characteristic of many coins series is a gradual development of the iconography, rather than clear transitions between distinguishable types, resulting in typologies that are often essentially subjective attempts to impose a structure on what is in reality more a fluid mass.
      The session will concentrate on two aspects of how these distinctive characteristics of Celtic coins shape digital projects.
      Four papers will address the challenges faced by databases in structuring data on what are often seemingly unstructured coinages. A particular focus will be on the role and application thereby of Linked Open Data.
      However, the fluidity of the iconography and the resulting variety of individual coins also means that they provide an ideal testing ground for the employment of digital methods such as image recognition and machine learning. A further four papers will thus present digital projects addressing the development of typologies and automated die studies.

      Conveners: David Wigg-Wolf (Römisch-Germansiche Kommission), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL)
      • 266
        How to transform a private monetary database into a collaborative tool on the internet

        Developed with FileMaker Pro, our "Antic monetary facies" database contains 40,000 records. Its transformation into a collaborative web tool entails a reorganization of the structure by distinguishing between data files, which can be made available at a later date, and the descriptive thesaurus under Opentheso (a web-based thesaurus management tool dedicated to the management of vocabularies), allowing alignment with other thesauri such as those of Nomisma.org, in accordance with the FAIR principles. The originality of this database lies in the fact that it does not start from the coin but from the archaeological site and, if possible, from the contexts of discovery. Then, two levels of entry of numismatic objects are possible either individually (coins, monetary tools, etc.) or by batch via the georeferenced table. Optimized extractions facilitate cataloguing and mapping in WG84, in the European NUTS format thanks to Archéolocalis.

        Speakers: Agnès Tricoche (Ecole normale Supérieure), Eneko Hiriart (CNRS_ Université Bordeaux Montaigne), Guillaume Reich (Bibracte), Katherine Gruel (Aoroc _CNRS- ENS-PSL), Yadh Yebni
      • 267
        Online Celtic Coinage: a virtual union catalogue for the coinage of pre-Roman Iron Age Europe

        Recent years have seen the successful online publication of a number of virtual union catalogues for coinages from different fields of numismatics, for example Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) and PELLA. However, the development of such a resource for the coinage of pre-Roman Iron Age Europe presents a number of new challenges. Thus, there is no single universal standard reference work such as Roman Imperial Coinage that could provide a framework, but rather a wide range of often conflicting typologies covering individual coinages. Furthermore, some of the concepts used to describe Greek and Roman coinages, such as issuer, authority, mint and denomination cannot be applied in the same straightforward way to Iron Age coins. This paper will consider these challenges and discuss potential solutions that are needed in order to develop an Online Celtic Coinage.

        Speaker: David Wigg-Wolf (Römisch-Germansiche Kommission)
      • 268
        Iron Age Coins in Britain and the Celtic Coin Index Digital

        The Iron Age was the period in which the first coins appeared in Britain, and they are a major source of information on late Iron Age society. The main dataset of this material culture is the Celtic Coin Index (CCI), housed at the University of Oxford. Up to now, it has existed mainly on paper index cards (more than 80,000). This talk introduces the Celtic Coin Index Digital (CCID) project aimed on creating a fully accessible database of this living archive on a Linked Open Data platform. The CCID classification is based on the latest generally agreed taxonomy, ABC (Ancient British Coins). An online edited version – IACB (Iron Age Coins in Britain) – is now available as a digital research tool which provides access to an edited ABC online. This paper will also present recent work undertaken to create the IACB and detail its connection to the CCID.

        Speakers: Chris Gosden (University of Oxford), Chris Howgego (University of Oxford), Courtney Nimura (University of Oxford), Ethan Gruber (American Numismatic Society)
      • 269
        AeMa (Archéométrie et Monnaies antiques): a database of metal analyses for ancient coins

        Thanks to the Aureus and Atmoce projects funded by the French Région Centre-Val de Loire, a metal analysis database for ancient coins, especially Celtic coins, was recently developed at the IRAMAT laboratory in close partnership with the MSH Val de Loire.
        Interoperable, in particular with the Gallica database (BnF), the AeMa database will make available to the scientific community the results of elemental analyses carried out at IRAMAT of ancient gold, silver and copper alloy coins by LA-ICP-MS (precious metals) and Fast Neutron Activation (copper-based alloys).
        This paper will report on the thinking behind the development of this database, presenting its structure and potential within the current context of Linked Open Data.

        Speakers: Henrique Da Mota (IRAMAT, CNRS-univ. Orléans), Laurence Rageot (MSH Val de Loire), Maryse Blet-Lemarquand (IRAMAT, CNRS-univ. Orléans), Murielle Troubady (IRAMAT, CNRS-univ. Orléans), Sylvia Nieto-Pelletier (IRAMAT, CNRS-univ. Orléans)
    • S56. LATE ANTIQUITY AND EARLY MIDDLE AGES 1. ITALY Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Convener: Andrea Saccocci (Università degli Studi di Udine)
      • 270
        Coin circulation in late Roman Velia (Campania-Italy): preliminary data

        The city of Elea-Velia, a Phocaean foundation on the Tyrrhenian coast of South Italy, have been explored from the 1960s. More than 10,000 coins have been recovered during archaeological investigations. The study of the coins, still in progress, is conducted by the Chair of Greek and Roman Numismatics of the University of Salerno (DiSPaC).
        A substantial percentage of finds are late Roman coins, datable to the 4th and 5th century. The aim of this contribution is to present an overview of the evolution of monetary circulation in the city and surrounding territories in the period from the 4th to the 6th century, paying particular attention to the widespread presence of the lowest denomination coins. The coin finds from contexts in Velia are reconsidered through a comparison with pottery finds and numismatic evidence currently available from the excavations in Naples.

        Speaker: Flavia Marani (Università degli Studi di Salerno )
      • 271
        Late Antique Coin circulation in Romagna: The Evidence from Ad Novas (Cesenatico, Italy)

        Between 2008 and 2014, the University of Leicester (UK) in collaboration with the Museo della Marineria (Cesenatico, IT), investigated the Roman site of Ad Novas near modern Cesenatico. During the 2006 evaluation and 2008-14 campaigns, a total of 525 coins were recovered; 85% of the assemblage dates from 1st century BC to 5th century AD.
        Despite the geographical proximity to the Ostrogoth and Exarchate courts in Ravenna, coins from the late-5th to the 7th centuries were not documented at Ad Novas, although issues of Byzantine Emperors were recovered recently in fields not far from the site.
        When written sources and finds seem to suggest a continuation of the settlement into the 6th and early 7th centuries, the lack of numismatic data suggests important changes in the monetary exchange, economy and social structure of the site occurred in the second half of the 5th century.

        Speakers: Denis Sami, Elena Baldi (Washington University)
      • 272
        The use of coins in tombs in Veneto during late antiquity and the Middle Ages

        It is traditionally accepted that the use of coins in classical funerary contexts was linked to the famous myth of Charon, the ferryman who carried souls to the afterlife in exchange for one or more coins. However, it seems that this practice continued throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, despite the fact that these individuals were in a Christianised society where pagan practices were substantially restricted. Within the framework of the MORTI project (Money, Rituality and Tombs in Northern Italy during Late Antiquity) (H2020-MSCA-IF-2020-101025031-MORTI), coins from several Late Antique and Medieval necropolises located in the Veneto region have been analysed in order to identify elements which could explain this funerary practice during this period.

        Speaker: Noé Conejo (Università degli Studi di Padova )
      • 273
        The SM mark on bronze issues of the period of Honorius

        Since the late 380s all the bronze coins struck by Western mints were of the smallest AE4 denomination. Starting from 404, the mint of Rome resumed the issuing of AE3 coins, characterised by the presence of the S M mark (Sacra Moneta) associated with the mint mark. The S M mark always appears in subsequent issues of the mint of Rome until 417-418, after which it is no longer found in Western coins.
        This paper aims to connect this mark to the presence of the emperor or members of his comitatus in the place of issue. The S M mark would have been used to highlight not only the context of issue but also its function: the coins would have been minted according to the needs or purposes of the comitatus, perhaps to supply the arca vinaria or, in connection with adventus ceremonies, for distribution to the people as congiaria.

        Speaker: Stefano Bruni (Independent Researcher)
    • S70. MIDDLE AGES 8. 12TH-13TH CENTURIES, EASTERN EUROPE Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Convener: Grzegorz Śnieżko (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Polish Academy of Sciences)
      • 274
        A hoard of twelfth century Italian denari from the area of Ternopil’, Ukraine

        By 2021, traces of a high-medieval settlement were identified in the vicinity of Ternopil’. Finds included an ingot of bronze-lead alloy and a hoard of forty-one coins, spread over a small area. All the coins come from twelfth century Italy: forty from Lucca and one from Genoa. This discovery is particularly remarkable in context of coin finds from Halych Ruthenia. Recent finds revealed a minor influx of coins from the west during the twelfth century — the presence of Polish coins among them suggests that their path ran through Poland. On the other hand, the Ternopil’ hoard has no analogies in Poland and points to closer contacts with Italy, through Pannonia or, perhaps, through the Black Sea. In this paper, we will examine this phenomenon more closely, describing the circumstances and the essence of these contacts.

        Speaker: Borys Paszkiewicz (University of Wrocław)
      • 275
        Fur money of Ancient Rus'?

        Most researchers now agree that fur money was in circulation in 11th-13th century Rus’. This form of commodity money was in use only in the cultural and political borders of Early Rus’ and did not spread beyond its borders. The paper examines the known written accounts handed down by travellers to Rus’ in the Middle Ages and second-hand eyewitness reports about its customs, and discusses the financial side of the fur money circulation. A few attributed finds of fur money seals are presented.

        Speaker: Dzmitry Huletski (European Humanities University)
      • 276
        Silver payment ingots in Eastern Europe. Genesis and dating

        The author presents an up-to-date chronological classification of silver payment ingots from Eastern Europe that circulated in 11th-15th centuries, describing eleven main types classified by morphology and weight. Based on past and most recent finds from two last decades, new types of payment ingots such as Lithuanian triangular, Volhynian worm-shape, and local varieties of Novgorod-type rouble and poltina have come to light. To look into the origin of standard silver payment ingots and specify their circulation time, the author also examined finds of stamped silver payment ingots from Eastern Europe, publishing their new varieties and classifying them as Western, Russian and Tartar. Our main goal is to introduce to western numismatists current trends and new developments in the research on medieval silver payment ingots in Eastern Europe.

        Speaker: Ilya Shtalenkov (Belarusian Numismatic Soсiety)
      • 277
        Silver ingot from Chełm (13th century). Preliminary report

        One of the most intriguing problems in East European medieval numismatics is the cessation of minting around mid-11th century, followed by a coinless period which lasted until the second half of 14th century. One form of commodity money in use at the time was the grivna. Several types of these silver standard payment ingots are distinguished depending on their shape and weight.
        In Poland the first silver payment ingot came to light in 2016. This Kiev-type grivna was excavated by archaeologists in Chełm on the site of the residence of Prince/King Daniel Romanovich (phase I; rubble of building D1). The time of the construction of building D and D1 was apparently in the 1230s-50s (TL dating of bricks).
        Future analysis of the material of the grivna found in Chełm (including Lead Isotope Analyses [S. Merkel]) is expected to shed light on the source of this silver.

        Speakers: Marcin Wołoszyn (Leibniz Institute for the History and Culture of Eastern Europe (GWZO), Leipzig, Germany // Institute of Archaeology, University of Rzeszów, Poland), Stephen William Merkel, Tomasz Dzieńkowski
    • 7:00 PM
      Visiting the temporary exhibition The Golden Collection. André van Bastelaer’s coins at the Royal Castle Royal Castle

      Royal Castle

      Pl. Zamkowy 4 (https://www.zamek-krolewski.pl/en)
    • RT 6 - RT POMPEII, MINTURNAE, MASSALIA, HISPANIA: NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE FOR WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN TRADE, 200-50 BCE Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org.: Clive Stannard and Alejandro G. Sinner; moderator: Clive Stannard

      In central Italy, a period of rapid economic growth followed the Second Punic War. It saw deep monetisation of markets, but also a severe dearth of small change. This obliged communities and social groups to make their own local, non-state coinages. A new understanding of these coinages at Minturnae and Pompeii, and in Latium generally, as well as coin finds from Minturnae and Rome, throw new light on burgeoning trade with Carthage, Gaul and Hispania, as well as with the Greek East.

      • At Pompeii, the non-state coinages imitated Carthage, Ebusus, Massalia and Rome. Some relate to the wine trade to Gaul during the period before Pompeii’s defeat by Sulla in the Social War (89 BCE), as finds near Massalia show.
      • There seem to be separate coinages associated with different groups of traders from Pompeii and Minturnae.
      • Minturnae was active in the exploitation of the rich coastal silver/lead mines around Cartagena in the second century BCE, and those of the Sierra Morena in the interior, during the first century.
      • Bronze coins and lead pieces with ‘Italo-Baetican’ types are found in both Latium and Baetica. They appear to have been made between about 150 and 50 BCE by a trading group which used the port of Minturnae.
      • This group seems to have managed a publica societas handling agricultural goods at Corduba in the first century, and to have been involved in Roman politics in the 80s.

      The Round Table will explore the social and legal nature of Campanian maritime trade, and its development over time, using numismatic, archaeological, epigraphic and historical data.

      List of panelists:
      Alejandro G. Sinner
      Koenraad Verboven
      Clive Stannard
      Marta Barbato
      Albert Ribera I Lacomba
      Suzanne Frey-Kupper
      Jean-Albert Chevillon
      Michele Stefanile
      Bartolomé Mora Serrano
      Alfred Hirt

      Convener: Clive Stannard (University of Leicester)
      • 278
        Introduction
        Speaker: Clive Stannard (Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick)
      • 279
        Economy, Trade and Commercial Circuits in the Roman West (3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE
        Speaker: Alejandro G. Sinner (University of Victoria, Canada)
      • 280
        Pompeii and Minturnae: Numismatic evidence for trade with Carthage, Massalia and Spain
        Speaker: Clive Stannard (Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick)
      • 281
        Foreign and non-state coinage from the Roman sottosuolo
        Speaker: Marta Barbato (Ministero delle Cultura, Italy, Direzione generale Archeologia, belle arti e paessagio, Funzionario archaeologico)
      • 282
        Sicily and adjacent Islands at the crossroads of the Western Mediterranean: Cities and trade routes, and the role of their coins
        Speaker: Suzanne Frey-Kupper (University of Warwick)
      • 283
        Les reflets de Carthage dans les monnayages de l’Hispanie et de la Gaule
        Speaker: Jean-Albert Chevillon (Groupe Numismatique Du Comtat Et de Provence)
      • 284
        Small change for men, but a great leap for Romankind. Deep monetisation in Roman Italy, 200-50 BCE
        Speaker: Koenraad Verboven (University of Ghent)
      • 285
        Minturnae, Puteoli, Delos, Carthago Nova: Long distance Mediterranean trade during the Late Republican Age on the basis of the epigraphic evidence
        Speaker: Michele Stefanile (Scuola Superiore Meridionale)
      • 286
        The ceramic evidence for central Italian trade with Carthage, Gaul and Spain
        Speaker: Albert Ribera i Lacomba (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica - ICAC)
    • S09. GREECE 9. THRACE Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Convener: Ulrike Peter (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Der Wissenschaften)
      • 287
        The Demeter Coinages of Byzantium and Chalcedon

        This paper explores the dual coinage struck by Byzantium and Chalcedon featuring the head of Demeter on the obverse and a local deity on the reverse. Previously these two coinages were seen as a type of short-lived emergency measure intended to raise funds for Byzantium during the third quarter of the 3rd century BC. However, using a revised and updated die study of Byzantium's “Demeters” based on the work of Schoenert-Geiss and a never before completed study of Chalcedon's “Demeters”, I intend to show that these parallel series continued in circulation for an extended period of time. Furthermore, although struck on a different weight standard, sometimes called "Phoenician", the “Demeters” were minted alongside the Attic-weight Lysimachi coinages of both cities. This provides further proof that Byzantium and Chalcedon carefully orchestrated their coinages and employed different types of coins to fulfil diverse needs.

        Speaker: Constantin Marinescu (Independent Researcher)
      • 288
        Monetary circulation in Istros during the first half of the 3rd century BC

        The colonies located on the north-western shore of the Black Sea during the 3rd century BC were under the rule of the Thracian king Lysimachos. Their rebellion against Lysimachos led by the colony of Kallatis caused a conflict which continued over several decades, and directly influenced their development, the monetary circulation and their relationships. The aim of this paper is to trace some features of the coin circulation in the local market of Istros following the death of Lysimachos, which included silver drachms of Istros, bronze coins of Macedonian kings Philip II and Alexander the Great, countermarked bronze coins of Lysimachos and bronze coins of Apollo and Demeter types minted by Istros. The presence of some countermarks, both on the coins of Lysimachos and on the bronzes of Istros enables the dating of some monetary issues, and sheds light on the relationships between the Greek colonies in that period.

        Speaker: Steluța Marin (The Bucharest Municipality Museum)
      • 289
        Archaeological, historical, and technological (XRF analyses and GIS) aspects of early silver coins and coin hoards from Southwestern Thrace

        This paper will presentnew information about coins and coin hoards from the valley of the Middle Mesta River dating to the 5th - 4th century BC. We will present new archaeological and historical data based on the accurate analysis of alloy composition (in %) of the coins and the exact findspots of some of the coin finds.
        The nondestructive technique of X-ray fluorescence was used to identify a wide range of elements including, precious metals.
        The main purpose of the analyses is to determine silver content, the amount of other elements in the alloy, and their ratios. Statistical analysis of the data made in a unified database could reveal much of the missing information on the economic and technological aspects of ancient coin production, and on the sources of the raw material in the region.

        Speaker: Nina Hadzhieva (Regional History Museum at Blagoevgrad )
    • S25. ANTIQUITY 5. THE SYLLOGE NUMMORUM PARTHICORUM PROJECT (SNP) Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Fabrizio Sinisi

      The session will focus on the Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum Project (SNP) and the coinage of Parthia between the 3rd century BCE and the 3rd century CE. The SNP will publish nine volumes of altogether c. 17000 coins from some of the most important museums with collections of Parthian coins, such as the American Numismatic Society (New York), the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris), the British Museum (London), the Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna), the National Museum of Iran (Tehran), the Staatliche Museen (Berlin), and the collection of the Institut für Numismatik u. Geldgeschichte (ING) of the University of Vienna. In addition, the digital archive at the online site parthia.com and the file-card archive of the ING provide over 50,000 coins from secondary sources.
      The session will include four presentations by members of the project from two research units involved, the Vienna group responsible for the publication of Volume 7 in 2012, and the London group that published Volume 2 in 2020. A general introduction will be given by the two co-directors, M. Alram (ÖAW, Vienna) and V.S. Curtis (BM, London), discussing aims and results of the project. Two presentations will focus on SNP 2 and the forthcoming SNP 4 volumes: A. Magub (BM, London) will discuss the problems and methodologies encountered in the preparation of these two volumes, while C. Hopkins (USA) will highlight specific technical issues as a result of the large databases involved in the project and the impact of large scale numismatic research on the broader historical picture. The final paper by F. Sinisi (ÖAW, Vienna) will focus on the nature of Parthian mints and their place in the fabric of the empire based on the results of SNP 5.

      Convener: Fabrizio Sinisi (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
      • 290
        The Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum Project (SNP)

        The Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum is an international research project with the aim of using coins as an important primary source for a better understanding of the history and culture of the Parthian period , c. 248 BC – AD 224.
        The Directors of the Project, Michael Alram (Vienna), Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis (London) and Fabrizio Sinisi (Vienna) are working with an international team and holdings from some major museums in the world.
        Two volumes have been published so far: SNP7 (2012) and SNP 2 (2020), and SNP 5 is due next year.
        Michael Alram and Vesta Curtis will be speaking about the challenges, the results and the way forward. It is also beyond exaggeration to state that the SNP Project has given a new impetus to Parthian Numismatics in particular and Parthian Studies in general.

        Speakers: Michael Alram (Austrian Academy of Sciences), Vesta Curtis (British Museum)
      • 291
        Database challenges for SNP Volumes 2 & 4

        This presentation discusses database management challenges met and overcome while publishing Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum Volume 2, and the ongoing preparations for Volume 4. In addition to technical database management issues, the process of acquiring, organizing and cataloguing more than 70,000 Parthian coins is discussed. Finally, the process of preparing a photos and text catalogue in sylloge format for print publication is addressed.

        Speaker: Chris Hopkins (Independent Researcher)
      • 292
        From SNP 2 to SNP 4: Challenges Encountered and Outcomes Gathered

        Published in 2020, Volume 2 of the SNP series examines coin production in the Parthian Empire during the reign of Mithradates II (c. 122/121–91 BC). Although the vast majority of Mithradates’ coinage is undated and the identification of many issuing mints obscure, research findings from SNP 2 demonstrate that silver and bronze coin production became increasingly centralised during this period of territorial expansion and consolidation. Work on SNP 4 has now commenced, with a focus on the coinage struck during the reigns of Mithradates III, Orodes II and Pacorus I between c. 57–38 BC – a period that is characterised by fraternal rivalry in the Arsacid ruling house and conflict with the Roman Empire. This paper will highlight some of the challenges encountered and findings gathered by the team based in the UK and US in their work on these two volumes.

        Speaker: Alexandra Magub (British Museum)
      • 293
        The drachms of Phraates IV, organization and patterns of production

        With ten mints issuing drachms, in addition to that of Seleucia on the Tigris dedicated to the tetradrachms, the reign of Phraates IV (37-2 BCE) marks a peak in the territorial distribution of Parthian coin production. Differently from the large silvers, coined only between 37 and 23 BCE, drachms were struck from the beginning to the end of the reign. The work carried out for the forthcoming Vol. 5 of the Sylloge Nummorum Parthicorum has allowed detecting four phases in their production, belonging to two main periods. The paper will discuss the links connecting these series from a chronological and a spatial point of view, highlighting the level of coordination among the mints as well as the local peculiarities, and how their reconstruction may impact our understanding of some key historical events of the reign of Phraates IV and of the fabric of the Parthian Empire on more structural terms.

        Speaker: Fabrizio Sinisi (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
    • S39. ROME 5. ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE 2 Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Kyrylo Myzgin (Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw)
      • 294
        Geographical Targeting in Roman Monetary Propaganda – A Critical Review

        Over the past decade, efforts have intensified to demonstrate that Roman authorities deliberately targeted selected messages to specific population groups (socially or geographically defined). In our paper, we would like to present the results of a re-evaluation of these attempts (above all, those published by Elkins, Maunders and Ellithorpe, thus concerning coins of various emperors with architectural depictions, coins of Domitian and 'Dacian' issues of Trajan). Our research is based on a statistical analysis of finds, especially of the monetary hoards included in the CHRE database. In addition, we will present the results of a spatial analysis of the distribution of Hadrian’s coin types with depictions of personifications of different provinces.

        Speakers: Grzegorz Sochacki, Kamil Kopij (Istitute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University)
      • 295
        Quite the father?! Resemblances of emperor portraits after the inauguration of a new Roman emperor

        Immediately after the acclamation of a Roman emperor, the mint of Rome issued coins in the name of the new princeps. Within these first issues, coin portraits were sometimes minted which resembled more closely the portrait of the deceased emperor than that of the new one.
        This resemblance can be explained by the fact that those in charge at the mint were not yet familiar with the portrait of the new emperor. It seems that the rapid minting of "new" coins was more important than the correct reproduction of physiognomic characteristics of the new emperor. Using selected examples from the first two centuries AD, the conditions and mechanisms of the continuation/changes of imperial portraits in this transition period will be examined. Additionally, an attempt will be made to draw conclusions from these observations about the organisation of the mint of Rome and responsibilities with regard to coin designs.

        Speaker: Simone Killen (Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik, München)
      • 296
        Survey of damaged aurei which have subsequently been "repaired": Is this a pervasive problem?

        It was suspected that a surprising number of originally holed or otherwise damaged aurei have been “repaired” over the last century and have subsequently entered the market undisclosed. A survey of the Coin Archives digital database of auction results of the last ~20 years was performed identifying 453 damaged aurei (scratches, nicks, or holes). Eight were subsequently “repaired” and re-entered the market free of defects and without description of the intervening “repairs”. Because of the short time interval of the preliminary survey, between one to twenty years for any one coin, a much larger study has commenced using pre-digital sources (auction catalogues and the ANS card file with auction results up to 100 years old). It is hypothesized that a much longer time period for potential repair will result in a larger percentage of “repaired” coins than was identified in our pilot study, perhaps revealing a pervasive problem.

        Speaker: Ronald Bude (University of Michigan)
    • S86. DIE STUDIES 1. 21ST CENTURY APPROACHES TO DIE STUDIES Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Org.: Lucia Carbone, Liv M. Yarrow, Caroline Carrier; chair Lucia Carbone

      Since its inception over 150 years ago, die studies have become an essential part of the numismatists’ tool kit because they aid in two major ways: (A) to reconstruct striking processes at a mint, and (B) to quantify the number of dies used to strike an issue. The first is widely accepted; the latter remains partly controversial. Even those who accept that quantification is possible and useful bemoan the fact that die studies are so laborious that it would be impossible to complete enough die studies of large enough issues to say anything particularly meaningful about the ancient money supply, let alone the ancient economy. However, new technologies seem to provide new possibilities. While no computer-aided die study has been published yet, using machine vision or computer aided measurement akin to facial recognition to speed the die study process seems now within reach, as in the case of ANS-sponsored CADS. Cooperative approach and open access databases provide yet other possibilities. Indeed, over the last few years, three projects have aimed to put online die studies: the Roman Republican Die Project (ANS), the SILVER project for the Greek coins including the Roman period (ENS Lyon) and the Iron Age Coin in Britain (Oxford). The data of thousands of die studies will be made available online for the first time and this resource will grow with new publications. It is a new important step for numismatics and one that will open new research paths to ancient economy studies based on these big data and on interdisciplinary approach. This panel thus aims to explore these new approaches to die studies, showing in which way it could be possible –paraphrasing M. Crawford – to solve “the practical problem that counting all the dies used to strike would be the work of several lifetimes.” (M.H. Crawford, RRC, 641).

      Convener: Lucia Carbone (American Numismatic Society)
      • 297
        Developments in the Computer-Aided Die Study (CADS)

        Numismatic die studies are notoriously labor intensive to conduct by hand, and often take years to complete. Recent years have seen an uptick in computational approaches to die studies, taking advantage of computer vision and unsupervised clustering techniques to both improve accuracy and greatly reduce time required. This paper presents recent developments in the Computer-Aided Die Study (CADS), one such project that aims not to replace the numismatists’ role, but instead to aid and empower their efforts. CADS provides a suite of tools that aid in conducting die studies, ranging from initial high-accuracy die clustering to integrating new material into a completed study. CADS is an ongoing project at the American Numismatic Society, and is a continuation of previous work in collaboration with Trinity University.

        Speaker: Zachary Taylor (American Numismatic Society)
      • 298
        The Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP): History and Methodology

        In early 2019 the American Numismatic Society partnered Richard Schaefer in the Roman Republican Die Project, aiming at making available to the public his archive of over 300,000 pictures of Roman Republican Coinage, likely the largest die study ever undertaken. The first part of this project consisted of the digital preservation of Schaefer’s archive and was completed in June 2019. The second phase of this project, still ongoing, consists in the quantification of Schaefer’s die counts as recorded in these images, with a specific focus on the coinage issued between 90 and 75 BCE. These statistical data are gradually becoming accessible through Coinage of the Roman Republic Online. We envision a much more ambitious third phase after all the existing data is publicly available in which we create a research group and digital tools to expand on Schaefer’s work, incorporating new specimens and increasing coverage of all issues.

        Speakers: Lucia Carbone (American Numismatic Society), Alice Sharpless (American Numismatic Society), Liv Mariah Yarrow (Brooklyn College, CUNY)
      • 299
        Integrating Die Studies into the Roman Republican Knowledge Graph

        The Coinage of the Roman Republican Online (CRRO), a joint American Numismatic Society and British Museum collaboration, was published online in early 2015. This digital corpus, based on Michael Crawford's 1974 Roman Republic Coinage, has since drawn together more than 60,000 example specimens from dozens of collections. More recently, the information system on which CRRO lies has been expanded to accommodate the Roman Republican Die Project. Some 10,000 coins from the archival research cards and binders of Richard Schaefer are presently entered into a database, linking to unique identifiers that reflect his die attributions. The link between die IDs to specimens to types enables a relatively instantaneous generation of die link charts and network visualizations. While much work remains to complete the digitization of Schaefer's die study, these digital tools reveal patterns more rapidly to a broader audience without the time-consuming data aggregation process that once defined die studies.

        Speaker: Ethan Gruber (American Numismatic Society)
      • 300
        The online die study database of the ERC « Silver »

        This talk gives an overview of the online Greek die study database developed by the ERC “SILVER”. Based on the two "Recueils quantitatifs des émissions monétaires" by Fr. de Callataÿ (1997, 2003) whose different categories of data it reproduces, it expands the number of cases to more than 1000. The site allows for the interoperability with other websites, quantitative data for each series and an overview of the obverse dies for the recorded series. Furthermore, each die has a dedicated page to which institutions with online catalogues can link their coins. The database also includes die studies authors pages and an interactive map showing the die studies according to several criteria. Although the database was conceived for Greek coins, we plan to add the data of Republicans and Imperials. This will allow for the first time a quantitative study of coins produced throughout the ancient Mediterranean.

        Speaker: Caroline Carrier (École normale supérieure de Lyon)
    • S87. EXONUMIA 1. ANCIENT AND BYZANTINE WEIGHTS: FROM DATABASES TO HISTORICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall D

      Org.: Charles Doyen, Pierre Charrey, chair: Charles Doyen

      Research on ancient and Byzantine weights has undergone an impressive development in the last decades. Historical metrology has now become an autonomous and dynamic field of research.
      In line with the pioneering studies of the second half of the 19th century, ancient weights used to be studied as para-numismatic and epigraphic items. This antiquarian and erudite approach was then refined throughout the 20th century with the development of scientific archaeology. During the past few decades, scholars were then focused on creating various corpora of weights produced in the same region, the publication of museum collections, and the completion of many individual archaeological reports.
      Since the relevant data were scattered throughout thousands of publications, the study of ancient Greek weights on a large scale in time and space required the creation of an efficient database. This long-term work has been carried out since 2016 by an international network of about 30 scholars in the framework of the Pondera Online project.
      Within a few years, the Pondera Online database (UCLouvain) has become a game-changer in the field and already contains over 15,000 ancient weights. This collaborative tool now makes possible undertaking historical and anthropological studies on a new level. Each period, from the Greek city-states to the development of Roman and then Byzantine imperialism, raises its own problems: e.g. metrology and territorial sovereignty, organisation of state control, anthropology of gestures, technological innovations and massive standardisation, religious ideology and economic rationality, etc.
      Historical metrology allows for a new perspective on the political economy and monetary practices in ancient and Byzantine times. Four case studies presented by young scholars, each dealing with the Greek-Hellenistic, Roman, and Late Antique/Byzantine eras, will demonstrate the new autonomy acquired by the discipline and will outline a few promising perspectives for ancient history in general.

      Convener: Charles Doyen (UCLouvain / FNRS)
      • 302
        For Good Measure: The Control of Measuring Instruments in the Ancient Greek Market

        The obligation to use certified weights and measures is a recurrent topos in Greek literary and epigraphic sources relating to market regulations. Magistrates were required to provide merchants with measuring instruments and weights and to control the use of official weights and measures in transactions. These controls took the form of countermarks or other types of marks on the instruments and gave legal status to them. These mechanisms were put in place notably to prevent fraud and to preserve confidence in the economic system. In this paper, we propose to study the customs and regulations surrounding the daily use of weights and measures in the market and the role of public authorities in the control of measuring and exchange instruments. Our aim is to shed new light on the modalities of economic transactions as well as on the practices and representations of weighing operations in the ancient Greek world.

        Speaker: Louise Willocx (UCLouvain)
      • 303
        On the Scale of the Empire : Weights Design and Late Roman Ideology (4th-8th c.)

        For four centuries, Roman merchants, collectors and money changers used normalized weights. These unparalleled instruments soon became a medium for a homogenous repertoire of forms and images. The precious materials, the iconography and the inscriptions engraved by the imperial factories incapsulate an array of references to the visual culture of citizens. Actors of an ecumene that was both Roman and Christian, those weights signified to the people their inclusion in the same political community. It is the cultural implications of this metrological revolution that this paper seeks to uncover. Indeed, the semiotics of the weights could play a significant role in their reception. Integrated into a control device comprising techniques and discourses, the aesthetics of measure ensures the acceptance of tax payments at the heart of densely monetarized trade. Eventually, it appears that these small monuments bring to light a unique phenomenon in the production of political representations.

        Speaker: Pierre Charrey (UCLouvain / FNRS)
      • 304
        Weighing After Death: Early Medieval Scales and Weights in a Funerary Context

        The vast majority of scales and especially weights are known to us today without an archaeological context. If we look at the few examples that come from archaeological findings, we can detect a significant difference between the Mediterranean area and the region north of it. While in the Mediterranean region these instruments are mainly found in settlements, outside the Mediterranean region they are primarily found in connection with burials. The subject of this paper are scales and weights in the grave context. As will be demonstrated, in many cases it is difficult to identifiy the role these instruments played in the burial ritual and their original purpose.

        Speaker: Bendeguz Tobias (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
    • S89. MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN NUMISMATICS Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Old Library - Hall 115-116

      Convener: Kevin Butcher (University of Warwick)
      • 305
        Adhering to a weight standard in ancient coinage based on the example of cistophori

        As part of an interdisciplinary project a wide range of non-destructive and destructive examinations of cistophori were carried out in order to answer archaeometallurgical questions. The destructive testing methods include the examples minted before 39 BC. The non-destructive testing methods include those minted up to the Hadrianic era. Destructively examined coins delivered information about the structure of the patina and their microstructure. These enabled conclusions to be made about production processes. A significant discovery is the presence of foreign particles (conventionally called planchet defects) which we called capsules. In our opinion, those capsules were used to achieve a standard weight for underweight planchets according to the Aeginetic standard. These capsules could be detected metallographically in the sections of 10 out of 16 coin halves as well as in non-destructive computed tomography scans.

        Speakers: Baerbel Morstadt, Wolfgang Bretz (Ruhr University Bochum Institute of Archaeological Studies )
      • 306
        Comparative metal analyses of original and counterfeit ancient coins - some examples from Bulgaria

        The spread of ancient coins counterfeits leads to historical and social distortions. Considering this, the need for adequate measures rises. In the last two years, the active collaboration of Bulgarian and international researchers within the framework of the ACCS Network and the project “Measuring Ancient Thrace” has provided a sustainable basis and new perspectives in this direction.
        There is a dangerously increasing diversity in the production methodologies of the forgers. The Regional History Museum of Sofia, as a leading institution of cultural heritage preservation, has a substantial collection of both genuine and counterfeit numismatic objects. This paper will present the comparative results from ХRF analyses of the chemical composition of a representative selection of pairs of original specimens and their counterfeits from this collection. These results may provide priceless information which can contribute to forgery detection cases.

        Speaker: Marina Doychinova (Regional History Museum of Sofia)
      • 307
        Using modern technologies for the 3D vizualization of the Roman Imperial coins

        Nowadays, one of the most widely used non-destructive methods is digitization, both two-dimensional and three-dimensional. It provides many opportunities in presenting the cultural heritage to the general and professional public.
        I will discuss the procedures used in the digitization of the coins of the Roman Empire, from which three-dimensional computer models are created through 3D digitization methods. I will also discuss digitization of small objects, AE3 and AE4 coins in particular.

        Speaker: Klara Burianova (Department of Auxiliary Sciences of History and Archival Studies, Philosophical Faculty, University of Hradec Kralove )
      • 308
        Re-Imagining Through Re-Imaging: RTI Helping Us See Museum Collections in a New Light

        During the pandemic, museum visitors became increasingly reliant on the internet for acquiring information about collections they could not visit in person. In 2020, curatorial and imaging staff at the Art Institute of Chicago launched a project to investigate how Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) can be used to present ancient inscribed works to new virtual audiences. Digitally exhibiting ancient Greek and Roman coins from the collection that are unsuitable for physical display due to their worn conditions is a primary goal of this project. This paper further explores the benefits to virtually manipulating a light source to reveal different subtleties of detail over the limitations of examining a standard 2D image. The project hopes to make a case for our web developers to build an interactive RTI viewer to use on the museum collections website, which is increasingly becoming the primary platform for publishing academic content of our collections.

        Speaker: Elizabeth Benge (The Art Institute of Chicago )
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffe break
    • RT 6 - RT POMPEII, MINTURNAE, MASSALIA, HISPANIA: NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE FOR WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN TRADE, 200-50 BCE Old Library - Auditorium

      Old Library - Auditorium

      Org.: Clive Stannard and Alejandro G. Sinner; moderator: Clive Stannard

      In central Italy, a period of rapid economic growth followed the Second Punic War. It saw deep monetisation of markets, but also a severe dearth of small change. This obliged communities and social groups to make their own local, non-state coinages. A new understanding of these coinages at Minturnae and Pompeii, and in Latium generally, as well as coin finds from Minturnae and Rome, throw new light on burgeoning trade with Carthage, Gaul and Hispania, as well as with the Greek East.

      • At Pompeii, the non-state coinages imitated Carthage, Ebusus, Massalia and Rome. Some relate to the wine trade to Gaul during the period before Pompeii’s defeat by Sulla in the Social War (89 BCE), as finds near Massalia show.
      • There seem to be separate coinages associated with different groups of traders from Pompeii and Minturnae.
      • Minturnae was active in the exploitation of the rich coastal silver/lead mines around Cartagena in the second century BCE, and those of the Sierra Morena in the interior, during the first century.
      • Bronze coins and lead pieces with ‘Italo-Baetican’ types are found in both Latium and Baetica. They appear to have been made between about 150 and 50 BCE by a trading group which used the port of Minturnae.
      • This group seems to have managed a publica societas handling agricultural goods at Corduba in the first century, and to have been involved in Roman politics in the 80s.

      The Round Table will explore the social and legal nature of Campanian maritime trade, and its development over time, using numismatic, archaeological, epigraphic and historical data.

      List of panelists:
      Alejandro G. Sinner
      Koenraad Verboven
      Clive Stannard
      Marta Barbato
      Albert Ribera I Lacomba
      Suzanne Frey-Kupper
      Jean-Albert Chevillon
      Michele Stefanile
      Bartolomé Mora Serrano
      Alfred Hirt

      Convener: Clive Stannard (Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick)
      • 309
        The Spanish silver/lead mines
        Speaker: Bartolomé Mora Serrano (University of Málaga)
      • 310
        Mining and Roman imperialism. Mining, metal supply, provincial administration
        Speaker: Alfred Hirt (University of Liverpool)
      • 311
        Panel discussions

        a) Roman and Campanian settlement and trade, led by Michele Stefanile.
        b) Mining and Roman Imperialism: Mining, metal supply, provincial administration, led by Alfred Hirt.
        c) The social and economic institutions of trade in the western Mediterranean in the last two centuries BCE, led by Koenraad Verboven.
        d) Conclusions, and opportunities and priorities for further work, led by Suzanne Frey-Kupper.

        Speakers: Albert Ribera i Lacomba (Institut Català d'Arqueologia Clàssica - ICAC), Alejandro G. Sinner (University of Victoria, Canada), Alfred Hirt (University of Liverpool), Bartolomé Mora Serrano (University of Málaga), Clive Stannard (Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick), Girolamo Ferdinando De Simone (Accademia di Belle Arti di Napoli), Jean-Albert Chevillon (Groupe Numismatique Du Comtat Et de Provence), Koenraad Verboven (University of Ghent), Marta Barbato (Ministero delle Cultura, Italy, Direzione generale Archeologia, belle arti e paessagio, Funzionario archaeologico), Michele Stefanile (Scuola Superiore Meridionale), Suzanne Frey-Kupper (University of Warwick)
    • S10. GREECE 10. ADVANCES IN ARCHAIC ATHENIAN COINAGE: MORE ON MINES, METALS AND MONEY Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Auditorium Maximum - Adam Mickiewicz Hall

      Org. and chair: Kenneth Sheedy

      This session will present papers dealing with the significant changes in our understanding of the coinage of archaic Athens - the Wappenmünzen and the archaic Owls (ca. 545 BC- 480 BC) and with our understanding of the Laurion and its silver mines during the archaic period. It will review the new catalogue and die study of Wappenmünzen together with extensive XRF research (Sheedy and Davis), present an overview of the evidence from Laurion for mining activity in the archaic period (Nomicos), present numismatic and scientific analyses of an unpublished plated Wappenmünzen tetradrachm (Sheedy, Salvemini, Olsen, Luzin, Davis) and review findings from new isotope studies of archaic Athenian coinage (Davis, Albarède). The papers jointly examine the new understanding that has emerged concerning the exploitation of silver sources in Attica and the nature and role of money in archaic Athens.

      Convener: Kenneth Sheedy (ACANS, Macquarie University)
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        A New Corpus and Die Study of Athenian Wappenmünzen

        This paper provides an overview of work to produce a new corpus and die study of Athenian Wappenmünzen. The study is intended to replace the famous but now well out of date 1924 book of Charles Seltman (Athens, Its Coinage and History). We review the changes in coin numbers and die patterns. Among the results are challenges to Seltman’s various claims for various reverse dies linking coins with different obverse types. It can now be demonstrated that most didrachms depicting a horse protome to left are forgeries. Among the most significant discoveries is the fact that the Wappenmünzen mint, in contrast to other major archaic mints on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean, was primarily concerned with the production of obols as well as a good number of drachms and that the didrachm output was relatively small.

        Speakers: Gil Davis (ACANS, Macquarie University), Kenneth Sheedy (ACANS, Macquarie University)
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        Silver Mining in Archaic Laurion

        According to the literary evidence and the scale of Athenian coin production during the 5th and 4th century BC the Laurion mining “industry” boomed during the classical period. This view is strongly supported by the archaeological record. The classical mining landscape in South Attica is preserved to this day in an astonishing number and diversity of sites: mines, workshops, furnaces and many more. In contrast, the Archaic period is hardly visible in the material remains. Consequently, the mining history of archaic Laurionhas has been primarily on the basis of a handful of inconclusive literary sources, and the results of metal analyses which identified Laurion deposits as the source of the Archaic “owls” of Athens. This paper re-examines and revies the existing evidence, including archaeological. It discusses to which extent the latter can contribute to our understanding of Athenian mining during the Archaic period.

        Speaker: Sophia Nomicos (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster)
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        A Plated Athenian Wappenmünzen gorgoneion tetradrachm at ACANS

        Little is known about the techniques for manufacturing plated coins among the very earliest issues of Greek (and world) money. In this study we present neutron and synchrotron X-ray analyses of a plated silver coin produced in Athens around 525-515 BC. This unpublished coin, ACANS 14A09, is a tetradrachm, which should have been made with 17.2gm of silver. But this ‘false’ coin (with its bronze core) was identified as such in Antiquity, and cut in half so that it might not be used again. Nonetheless, a study of the dies shows that they were used to mint other gorgoneion tetradrachms of good metal and so it is evident that our plated coin was produced in the official mint of Athens, and not by a forger, ancient or modern. Analyses show two mysterious gaps in the silver plating. Apparently the mint repaired the original plating of the coin flan in order to remove two blemishes before it was struck and allowed to pass into circulation.

        Speakers: Filomena Salvemini (ACANS and ANSTO), Kenneth Sheedy (ACANS, Macquarie University), Scott Olsen (ACANS and ANSTO), Vladimir Luzin (ACANS and ANSTO)
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        New techniques and analysis of Archaic Athenian coins

        The Wappenmϋnzen were the first coin types at Athens instigated by the Peisistratid tyrants in the third quarter of the sixth century BCE with changing types long thought to be 'heraldic' rather than state-sanctioned, minted in small denominations mainly for domestic use. Late in the sixth century, a standard 'owl' type was adopted, minted primarily in large denomination tetradrachms. The change of type and denomination was associated with access to domestic silver mined in Lavrion, Attica, prior to the introduction of democracy. Literary evidence implies the Peisistratids derived the silver for the Wappenmϋnzen from Northern Greece, and from Attica for the owls. Here we examine the silver ore sources of the Wappenmϋnzen and the owls using high-precision lead isotope data on a large set of new and legacy data of ores and coins, and detailed numismatic information on the coins and their types combined with new statistical approaches and EDXRF.

        Speakers: Francis Albarède (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon), Gil Davis (Australian Catholic University), Janne Blichert-Toft (CNRS), Kenneth Sheedy (ACANS, Macquarie University), Liesel Gentelli (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon), Markos Vaxevanopoulos (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon)
    • S26. ANTIQUITY 6. GEORGIAN NUMISMATICS Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall A

      Org. and chair: Tedo Dundua

      The origins of Georgian coinage date to the 6th century BC . Much has been done towards attribution of monetary groups and making the general numismatic narrative. However, until 2013-2015 there was no catalogue for Georgian coinage.
      The Online English-Georgian Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics was a project funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation. Now it is complete but still in need of publicising, like the Georgian coin issues themselves. This session is intended to serve this purpose.
      Reports.
      Tedo Dundua. Coin Issues in Georgia. General Survey – Presentation of Online English-Georgian Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics. The catalogue covers all the major monetary groups struck in Georgia until the 1830s: Colchian money (“Colchian tetri (silver)”, Kolkhidki); Georgian imitations of Alexander and Lysimachus type staters; Coins of Bagadat, son of Biurat; The co-called Saulaces’ coins; Municipal copper coins of Dioscurias; Anonymous copper coins struck in Vani; Drachms of Aristarchus the Colchian; Municipal copper coins of Trapezus; Georgian (Iberian) imitations of Roman coins; Georgian-Sassanian drachms; Arabic dirhems struck at Tbilisi and their imitations; Georgian-Byzantine coins; Georgian credit money (12th c.-1220s); Coins of the Georgian kings in the 13th-14th cc.; Mongol occupation coins; Western Georgian money of the 13th-15th cc.; Coins of the Georgian kings and princes in the 15th-16th cc.; Safavid and Ottoman money struck at Tbilisi; Coins of the Georgian kings in the 18th c.; Russo-Georgian money.
      Natia Phiphia. Coin Types in Georgia and the Graeco-Roman World.
      Leri Tavadze. Coin Types in Georgia and Byzantine World.
      Evgeni Tchanishvili. Beyond the Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics – New Coin Finds from Georgia.

      Convener: Tedo Dundua (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
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        Coin Issues in Georgia. General Survey - Presentation of Online English-Georgian Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics

        Having the 6th c. B.C. as a starting point, Georgian money issues gradually absorbed all the types, styles and standards which were popular around, especially those from the West. Greek deities and their symbols (Apollo, Helios, Hecate, Nike, Tyche, Dionysus, Dioscuri, Isis) were replaced by the Roman types (Emperor, Mars, Concordia, Annona, Victoria, Mithras), and the pagan deities – by Christ and the saints depicted on Byzantine coins (Blachernitissa, Saint Eugene). A motif drawn from an entirely different environment were fire temples and fire altars. For millennia Georgia has been of great importance to Europe as a frontier and in international commerce as a bridge to Asia. Coins issued in Georgia facilitated both, defense and trade. Defense and trade shaped themselves as international issues, thus these coins are mostly bilingual. And this story is fully related in Online English-Georgian Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics (T. Dundua et al.).

        Speaker: Tedo Dundua (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
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        Coin Types in Georgia and Graeco-Roman World

        The paper presents an overview of all the groups of coins discovered on the territory of Georgia which document the relationship of the Graeco-Roman world and Georgia. The overview will be based on the classification made within the framework of the project “Online English-Georgian Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics”. The groups of coins are as follows: 1) Colchian money (“Colchian tetri (silver)”, Kolkhidki) with eight types of the coins, 2) Georgian imitations of Alexander and Lysimachus’ type staters with their three types, 3) Municipal copper coins of Dioscurias with the effigies of Dioscuri caps and thyrsos, 4) Anonymous copper coins struck in Vani (?) with the effigies of lotus and an eight-pointed star, 5) Drachm of Aristarchus the Colchian with the portrait of Gnaeus Pompeius, 6) Municipal copper coins of Trapezus with the effigy of Mithras and 7) Georgian (Iberian) imitations of Roman coins.

        Speaker: Natia Phiphia (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
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        Coin Types in Georgia and Byzantine World

        The Georgian coins are an important primary source for the history of Georgia and neighboring countries. Georgian coins minted from the 10th to 12th centuries are known as "Georgian-Byzantine coins". The Georgian rulers are mentioned not only with their official Georgian titles, but their Byzantine titles appear as well. Davit III, Bagrat IV, Giorgi II are mentioned with their Byzantine court titles while Davit IV the Restorer is described with his Byzantine court title on his early coin issues, but on his later copper coins he appears in the imperial coat similar to the Byzantine rulers. Narrative sources confirm imperial connections of Davit IV starting from 1103. He was styled "Emperor of the Entire East" and "Autocrat", thus declaring himself ruler of the eastern Christian World, while in Georgian sources the Byzantine Emperor was viewed as the ruler of "The Entire West".

        Speaker: Leri Tavadze (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
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        Beyond Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics – New Coin Findings in Georgia

        Our paper reports on all new numismatic materials discovered in recent years spanning the early middle ages, high middle ages and late middle ages, starting with the Arab period in the Caucasus and Georgia in the 8th century and ending with the abolition of the Kingdom of Georgia.
        In our article we discuss the importance of these new discoveries for future researches in the history, culture, ethnography, art history, iconography of Georgia.

        Speaker: Evgeni Tchanishvili (Tbilisi State University)
    • S40. ROME 6. ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE 3 Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall B

      Convener: Bartosz Awianowicz (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun)
      • 320
        The Gold Coinage of Hadrian 117-128 CE

        The chronology of the coinage of Hadrian is notoriously problematic. This paper presents the results of a die analysis of 1,800 aurei of Hadrian dating to the first twelve years of his reign. These coins proved to have been struck by 403 obverse and 369 reverse dies. The links between these dies make it possible to reconstruct the chronology of many of the coin types in this period, at times with great accuracy. The study also reveals important details about the volume of aureus production and the organization of the Roman mint in this period.

        Speaker: Martin Beckmann (McMaster University )
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        Vota Coins on the Occasion of Imperial Anniversaries from Antoninus Pius to Diocletianus (138-294 A.D.)

        Roman vota coinage issued on the occasion of imperial anniversaries is known primarily as a phenomenon of the fourth century. Numismatists who study late ancient coinage are sooner or later bound to stumble upon the typology of vota legends (e.g., VOT X MVLT XX) within a wreath, a feature which is typical for these coins. However, coin types explicitly naming imperial anniversaries first appeared under Antoninus Pius, and continue to be issued almost without a break by Roman emperors in the 3rd century. In my dissertation I examine these special coins from this period to develop a fundamental understanding of their typology, origins, and development before their peak in the fourth century.
        In this paper I will present the preliminary results of this project, focusing on typology, its significance, and changes in meaning. Another question addressed is whether this coinage can serve as dating tools for the actual anniversary festivities.

        Speaker: Julia Sophia Hanelt (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz/Graduiertenkolleg 2304)
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        Initiators, status, degree of tolerance of authorities and other key features of irregular radiates: updated overview

        Radiates minted in huge quantities in Gaul, Germania and Britain in imitation of the antoniniani of the Gallic emperors (mainly) during the last quarter of the 3rd century, occupy a prominent place in the monetary circulation and the numerous hoards of the period. Although there is a broad consensus identifying this coinage as necessity coins, major questions remain unresolved concerning the status (private or public) of the issuing mints and their initiators. This paper will present the conclusions we have reached, based on the areas of production and circulation of radiates, and on the consequences we propose to draw from them in terms of imperial and provincial tolerance. It will also review the main characteristics of this coinage, particularly in the light of recent recently discovered hoards.

        Speaker: Fabien Pilon (UMR 7041, ArScAn (équipe GAMA) ; association La Riobé )
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        Natus vincere: the image of emperor Gallienus (253-268) through the Rome’s mint coinage

        We propose to reconstruct, using numismatic evidence, how the mint of Rome projected the image of Gallienus (253-68), one of the most important and enduring emperors of the period of military anarchy, . The most interesting statistics will be highlighted, and particular attention paid to the study of the distribution, denominations, deities and different reverses and legends involved, an essential propaganda tool for the ruling house ,and a clear sign of the relationship between central power and the army. We will also compare the data provided by the mint of Rome with that of other contemporary mints, such as those of Milan, Cologne, Siscia or Viminacium, and rival mints, as Cologne during the reign of the enemy, the founder of the Imperium Galliarum, Postumus.

        Speaker: David Serrano Ordozgoiti (Universidad Complutense de Madrid )
    • S86. DIE STUDIES 1. 21ST CENTURY APPROACHES TO DIE STUDIES Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Auditorium Maximum - Hall C

      Org.: Lucia Carbone, Liv M. Yarrow, Caroline Carrier; chair Lucia Carbone

      Since its inception over 150 years ago, die studies have become an essential part of the numismatists’ tool kit because they aid in two major ways: (A) to reconstruct striking processes at a mint, and (B) to quantify the number of dies used to strike an issue. The first is widely accepted; the latter remains partly controversial. Even those who accept that quantification is possible and useful bemoan the fact that die studies are so laborious that it would be impossible to complete enough die studies of large enough issues to say anything particularly meaningful about the ancient money supply, let alone the ancient economy. However, new technologies seem to provide new possibilities. While no computer-aided die study has been published yet, using machine vision or computer aided measurement akin to facial recognition to speed the die study process seems now within reach, as in the case of ANS-sponsored CADS. Cooperative approach and open access databases provide yet other possibilities. Indeed, over the last few years, three projects have aimed to put online die studies: the Roman Republican Die Project (ANS), the SILVER project for the Greek coins including the Roman period (ENS Lyon) and the Iron Age Coin in Britain (Oxford). The data of thousands of die studies will be made available online for the first time and this resource will grow with new publications. It is a new important step for numismatics and one that will open new research paths to ancient economy studies based on these big data and on interdisciplinary approach. This panel thus aims to explore these new approaches to die studies, showing in which way it could be possible –paraphrasing M. Crawford – to solve “the practical problem that counting all the dies used to strike would be the work of several lifetimes.” (M.H. Crawford, RRC, 641).

      Convener: Lucia Carbone (American Numismatic Society)
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        21st Century approaches to Die Studies: what role can an institution like the BnF play?

        The massive digitization of numismatic collections leads to questioning the role that an institution like the BnF can play in the digital numismatic world. In addition to the typological approach already developed on several linked open data portals, it is possible to consider the die as another way to gather/distinguish ancient coins issues. Thanks to several hundred thousand coins digitized, accessible via the IIIF protocol and an adequate standardized cataloguing, the BnF can contribute to this development.

        Speaker: Julien Olivier (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
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