Guided bone regeneration in osteoporosis by plant-derived nanoparticles


Gurzawska-Comis, Katarzyna (University of Liverpool)


The repair and treatment of large bone defects in patients with compromised bone metabolism due to ageing and medical conditions such as osteoporosis present often a clinical challenge. Therefore adjunctive methods to enhance bone healing are needed. Bone tissue engineering with application of nanotechnology allows to construct biomaterials with desired properties being osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenic.
The aim of our study was to promote bone regeneration using functionalised scaffold with Rhamnogalacturonan-I pectins (RG-I) in vitro and in vivo using aging and osteoporotic rodent models.
Material and Methods:
The biomaterials were poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) scaffolds and the RG-I was from potato. The chemical and physical properties of functionalised biomaterials with RG-I nanoparticles were characterised using confocal and atomic force microscopy. Functionalised scaffolds with RG-I (tested sample) were evaluated in vitro with human osteoblasts from osteoporotic patients and their response was tested using real-time PCR. In vivo evaluation was performed using criticalsize calvaria bone defect model in ageing and osteoporotic rat models. Scaffolds were implanted randomly in the calvaria defects of aged female Wistar rats (11-12 months old) and osteoporotic female Wistar rats induced by ovariectomy. The control was scaffold without RG-I. After 2 and 8 weeks animals were euthanised. Harvested samples were analysed for osteogenic and inflammatory markers using real-time PCR. Bone formation was evaluated radiographically and histologically. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA.
The chemical and physical properties results indicated success of the functionalisation of scaffolds with RG-I. Osteoblasts response suggested osteogenic (upregulation osteopontin, osteocalcin, collagen1, bone sialoprotein) and anti-inflammatory properties (downregulation IL-1, IL-8, TNFalpha) on the scaffold functionalised with RG-I. The in vivo results in aged and osteoporotic rat calvaria model of early (2 weeks) bone regeneration showed increase of osteogenic markers and decrease of proinflammatory markers and RANKL, compared to control. In osteoporotic rat model at week 2 and 8 and in aged rat model at week 8, the mean percentage of BV/TV (bone volume/tissue volume) in the defect with RG-I scaffold was significantly greater than the defect with control. The histological evaluation in both rat models revealed larger areas of new bone formation in RG-I scaffolds than in control.
Conclusion and Clinical implications:
In conclusion, the plant-derived nanoparticles significantly increased osteogenic and decreased pro-inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. These finding may have a crucial impact on bone repair process especially in elderly and osteoporotic patients.


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