Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1 (Yonsei University)

Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

Yonsei University

    • Registration Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Yonsei University

    • Opening & Welcome Grand Ballroom A

      Grand Ballroom A

      Welcome Speech
      Music performance
      Group photo

    • Keynote 1 Grand Ballroom A

      Grand Ballroom A

      Convener: Ilan Kennerman
      • 1
        Automating the creation of dictionaries: Are we nearly there?

        Just over a decade ago, a number of papers (notably Rundell & Kilgarriff 2011) reviewed developments in the application of language technologies to the compilation of dictionaries. They showed how the dictionary-making process had been to some degree automated, and they speculated on the prospects for further advances along the road towards full automation. Ten years on, it is time to assess what progress has been made. This paper starts with a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in 2011, then looks at developments in the period between then and now. Predictions made in earlier papers are reviewed: how far have they been realised? Several semi-automated projects are reported on, showing gradual progress towards a new approach to dictionary compilation. In this model — known as ‘post-editing lexicography’ — the role of human lexicographers is to post-edit (that is, evaluate and refine) the first draft of a dictionary which has been generated automatically and transferred into a dictionary writing and editing system. All of these developments have been called into question by the recent arrival of ChatGPT and similar large language models, which seem to offer the prospect of by-passing current technologies. Through of a number of experiments using ChatGPT to generate dictionary text, the potential for these AI tools to replace the current state-of-the-art is investigated.

        Speaker: Michael Rundell
    • 12:00 PM
      Lunch break
    • Session 1: Cultural and Societal Representation in Lexicography Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Convener: Hai Xu
      • 2
        The dictionarization of the feminist lexicon

        This research is situated at the intersection between lexicography, neology and the analysis of feminist discourse and is based on the following research questions: how have feminist studies contributed to lexical innovation in Spanish? what lexicographic treatment is the lexicon of feminist discourse receiving? and what are the criteria to prioritize the dictionarization of these words?

        Feminist movements, which are more than a hundred years old if we refer to the first
        suffragette movements, have been analyzing and denouncing different aspects of inequality between men and women from different areas of knowledge, such as philosophy, history, sociology or linguistics (Lakoff 1975, Bengoechea 2012). In its evolution, both from the theoretical dimension and from social and political activism, feminist discourse has been endowed with a theoretical-conceptual apparatus and its own vocabulary that has had different degrees of social impact. Some of the words used in feminist discourse have quickly and naturally become
        part of everyday speech, while others are still unknown outside feminist circles; on the other hand, some have been included in the most representative general dictionaries of the different languages and others, regardless of their use, have not yet been included in the dictionaries.

        In our paper we propose to answer the questions formulated above with the support of the main bibliographical references regarding the criteria for the dictionarization of neologisms: Algeo (1993), Barnhart (1985), Bernal et al. (2020), Freixa & Torner (2020), Ishikawa (2006), KlosaKückelhaus & Wolfer (2020), Nam et al. (2016) and O'Donovan & O'Neill (2008). To do so, based on a sample of feminist discourse terms in Spanish documented in several glossaries (Píkara Magazine, 2013; El Público, 2018; JASS, 2012; among others) we will analyze the use of these units in Spanish corpora (esTenTen, Kilgariff & Renau 2013) and on the web (through the Google
        Analytics tool and Factiva). Subsequently, we will contrast this usage information with their lexicographic inclusion or exclusion in general dictionaries of Spanish (DLE 2014, DEA 2016, DUE4, 2017). Finally, we will discuss these results in relation to the dictionarization criteria and study in more detail the cases where other criteria not described so far in the literature might have played a role.

        Speaker: Judit Freixa Aymerich
      • 3
        Ageism vs. positive ageing: The image of older adults in the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary

        With the intensification of ageing in the world population, the attention to older adults has dramatically increased. Compared with numerous studies of ageing identity in newspapers, novels and social media, there is little focus on dictionaries. How is the image of older adults constructed in dictionaries, specifically in the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (7th edition, CCD7)? Is bias against older people displayed? This study adopts content analysis, transitivity and interpersonal systems from the perspective of CDA to demonstrate the social perceptions of older people in CCD7. Results show a diverse and balanced portrayal of old age in CCD7. On the negative side, CCD7 produces the identity of frail and vulnerability, and reveals several stereotypes regarding older people, with old age being presented as the antithesis of active youth. On the positive side, CCD7 is quite unique in affirming the importance of older adults in the family. Furthermore, according to our analytical interpretation of the example sentences, care for older adults cannot be fully identified as being in poor health. Rather, such care is considered a social and familial responsibility, reflecting Chinese social perceptions of respect and care for older adults, who have worked for the society and devoted themselves to their families for many years. This inconsistency with the results of previous studies may stem from differences in both social ideology and the genre of discourse. This study has rich implications for dictionary compilation regarding the inclusion, definition of entry words, and the treatment of sentence examples. The statistical and analytical findings of this study may help dictionary compilers to be aware of the ageism and inequality implicit in biased expressions and thereby promote the use of more inclusive language in future dictionary making.

        Speaker: Hai Xu
      • 4
        What’s in a name? Onomastics, identities, and Philippine dictionaries

        Tracing the origins of surnames reveal more than familial affinity. Names are records and repositories of histories, contacts, movements, place and place-making, heritage, trade, cultural practices, aspirations, and occupations; and they also mark individuality and group affinity. In the study of Filipino last names, Philippine dictionaries were consulted to identify the components and meanings of these surnames which resulted in a fascinating discovery of a people’s precolonial culture history and recent histories of contact and colonisation. While onomastics, or the study of personal names, is certainly not a novel field, tracing the origins of last names in a multilingual situation with a high level of linguistic diversity, is definitely challenging.

        Although a number of Filipino surnames are foreign in origin, i.e., there are numerous surnames that can be traced back to Spanish and several Chinese languages, the study focuses on indigenous surnames. Various Philippine dictionaries were consulted to trace the origin of the word, identify its structure, and unpack the meaning embedded in the root and its affixes. In the etymological archaeology of these surnames, the main challenges that were encountered are: (1) some roots have varying meanings across languages; (2) homonymity can sometimes leave the researcher in doubt; (3) the structural complexity of some forms given that Philippine languages agglutinative languages; and (4) some forms underwent phonological or orthographic changes. Because of these challenges, some surnames kept their stories hidden, hoping to be revisited.

        Speaker: Jesus Federico Hernandez
    • Session 2: Pedagogical Lexicography Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Convener: Amy Chi
      • 5
        Could LexTeach be a model of how to popularise lexicography?

        The idea of LexTeach (Let Us Teach, or Lexicographers Teach) was first introduced in 2019 ASIALEX Istanbul and it referred to dictionary literacy workshops and lectures which aim at promoting English lexicography, particularly the use of EFL dictionaries, on a regular basis. With the support of ASIALEX, LexTeach was first trialled via zoom along with the 2022 ASIALEX conference, offering two lectures and one workshop to public audiences gathered through social media platforms and electronic contacts of various university departments. 2022 LexTeach was free of charge and open to the public on a first-come-first-served basis. The two lectures were designed to disseminate dictionary information focusing on the EFL dictionaries (the Big Six) to a general audience, while the workshop aimed at discussing teaching methodologies and lesson plans to targeted English language teachers. All three scholars involved in the event found the teaching gratifying while feedback received from participants on a voluntary basis was encouraging. Through reflecting on the experience of initiating and organising 2022 LexTeach, the presenter explores the question “What have we learned from 2022 LexTeach which may help popularize lexicography?” The presentation will explain how 2022 LexTeach was organised and identify challenges faced in preparing 2023 LexTeach. Then, it will discuss feedback from both the participating audience and speakers. With such information as the backdrop, finally the presentation will examine the sustainability and implications of such a project for ASIALEX and popularisation of lexicography.

        Speaker: Amy Chi
      • 6
        Monolingual or bilingualized dictionaries: Do they make any difference to learners discriminating between near-synonyms in cloze test?

        The bilingualized learner’s dictionary (BLD) combines elements of the monolingual and bilingual dictionaries (MDs and BDs, respectively). A BLD is normally compiled on the basis of an already existing learner’s MD (Cowie 1999) by supplementing the original monolingual entries with a translational equivalent in the learner’s mother tongue. It is believed that the addition of the equivalent provides confirmation to those learners who do not understand fully the definition or even when they do, they still find it difficult to identify the object or concept being defined. This confirmatory effect seems to be especially needed in the cases of definitions written with a restricted defining vocabulary because such definitions are often criticized for being imprecise and vague. Thus it seems reasonable to claim that L1 equivalents may remedy the deficiency of such definitions. The present paper examines the discriminatory power of a BLD, as compared with a learner’s MD, in the context of several near-synonyms of the verb laugh. 142 undergraduate students of English Studies were asked to complete several sentences (a modified cloze test) by filling blanks with the near-synonyms. Some of the students had access to the original LDOCE entries for these words, while others used BLD entries (LDOCE plus equivalents). The study shows that the BLD users achieved slightly higher scores in the test than the LDOCE users, but the difference could be due to chance because it was not statistically significant. On the basis of this study one cannot generalize to the whole population of learners by claiming that BLDs are more helpful than learner’s MDs in discriminating between near-synonyms in cloze tests.

        Speaker: Mariusz Kamiński
      • 7
        Compiling the Yonsei Korean Synonyms Dictionary for learners and dictionary users

        The purpose of this study is to introduce the compilation process and characteristics of the new "Yonsei Korean Synonyms Dictionary" and to suggest ways to utilize it.
        Despite the importance of synonym distinction for language learners and teachers, so far, synonyms dictionaries have often presented synonyms lists as thesaurus. So, we introduce the new "Yonsei Korean Synonyms Dictionary" as the new model Korean Thesaurus and discuss what information is presented and how the information is illustrated. We provide the lexical information and description of synonyms based on analyzing corpus, not dictionary compilers' intuition.
        And the macro structure and micro structure of the "Yonsei Korean Synonyms Dictionary" is especially designed to distinguish synonyms. The contents of this dictionary can be used in various ways in developing textbooks for language learners, and in this study, we will also look at the use of this dictionary.

        Speakers: Sunhye Kim, Mi-Kyung Bong
    • Session 3: Dictionary Use and User Studies IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      Convener: Hae-Yun Jung
      • 8
        Developing "Can do" descriptors for L2 dictionary use: A preliminary version

        There is a growing influence of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) around the world as a generic descriptive tool for foreign language proficiency. Asian regions are no exception. Countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, among others have used the CEFR as a guideline for their foreign language policy making. China developed their original framework called China Standard of English, which is heavily influenced by the CEFR. Japan also uses the CEFR as a reference for their national curriculum reform. While the CEFR specifies various aspects of communicative language activities, communicative language competence as well as communication and learning strategies, there is a constant lack of descriptions regarding the skills of using reference materials including dictionaries for receptive and productive activities. The Companion Volume for the CEFR (2020) revised and improved the original framework in 2001 and incorporated new perspectives as to the modes of communication, including mediation skills and online communication. Now that there is a growing demand for describing the skills with the help of online reference tools, the present study therefore aims to develop a set of illustrative "can do" descriptors for dictionary skills in the context of foreign language learning. To this end, we conducted an extensive literature review of the previous dictionary use and skills surveys in order to create a list of skill inventories for what language learners can do with a dictionary in various tasks in language learning. In this paper, we will report on the methodological approach we have taken in the descriptor development and show the preliminary list of descriptors for review. Then we will explain how these descriptors will be calibrated along the CEFR levels using Rasch analysis.

        Speakers: Naho Kawamoto , Yukio Tono
      • 9
        Inaccuracy of an e-dictionary and its influence on Chinese language users

        Electronic dictionaries have replaced most paper dictionaries and have become the primary learning tools in assisting L2 learners in expanding their lexical repertoire. Generally, users tend to assume the definitions in E-dictionaries are reliable and barely question the validity of the descriptions provided. The accuracy of major E-dictionaries is not commonly challenged, and the formation of online dictionary corpora is rarely discussed. Moreover, the study of dictionary use is rather limited, especially E-dictionary problems. This study takes a combined research approach of experiment, survey, and dictionary critique to investigate the most popular E-dictionary in China – Youdao. The experiment included retrospection and translation test with the purpose of finding out how E-dictionary can affect student learning. Over a hundred students in different disciplines were asked to translate sentences that included insufficiently defined words in Youdao dictionary. The dictionary consultation process was recorded to observe how some deficient definitions influence participants' understanding of the words. It is found that E-dictionaries with errors of incomplete and/or inaccurate definitions could lead to students’ misinterpretation of the sentence. In addition, student consultation habits were found problematic. The causes of the deficient word definitions are also explained from a data processing point of view. For instance, translation mistakes are integrated by the application of Artificial Intelligence and machine learning technology in online dictionaries. It is suggested that the dictionary skills of users should be further trained, and improvement of online dictionaries should also be made with better AI technologies.

        Speakers: Fanfei Meng, Xi Wang , Shiyang Zhang, Lan Li
      • 10
        Don’t throw your paper dictionary away! Using different types of dictionaries for improving EFL vocabulary learning

        The digitalization has revolutionized L2 acquisition and fostered a great diffusion of online dictionaries (Müller-Spitzer 2014). But experiments comparing online to paper-based dictionaries provide mixed results (Lew&DeSchryver 2014): Chen (2010) did not find significant differences for vocabulary acquisition between the two kind of dictionaries, while Allharbi (2016) and Dziemianko (2010) found that students using online dictionaries could learn more words compared to paper-based dictionaries. In contrast Li-Ling&Liu (2013) and Ferrett&Dollinger (2021) brought data in favour of the printed dictionary.
        The present study was carried out in order to see if there were any significant differences between online and paper dictionaries in the context of EFL learning with regard to: a) vocabulary acquisition; b) memorization of (15) new words; c) reading comprehension d) long-term retention of new words. Fifty-four students carried out the experiment in 4 sessions at a language centre run by a German university; they were randomly assigned to the online, paper and a control group. Based on the results, in the short-term test users of paper dictionaries performed slightly better on an exercise on the correct spelling of words than the control group. Another statistically significant difference was that students rated the user-friendliness of the paper dictionary slightly better.

        Speaker: Massimo Salgaro
    • 3:30 PM
      Coffee break
    • Keynote 2 Choe Yeong Hall

      Choe Yeong Hall

      Convener: Seok Bae Jang
      • 11
        The ROI of AI for lexicography

        Large Language Models (LLMs) are being used for many language-based tasks, including translation, summarization and paraphrasing, sentiment analysis, and for content-generation tasks, such as code generation, answering search queries in natural language, and to power chatbots in customer service and other domains. Since much modern lexicography is based on investigation and analysis of large-scale corpora similar to the corpora used to train LLMs, we hypothesize that LLMs could be used for typical lexicographic tasks. A commercially-available LLM API (OpenAI’s ChatGPT gpt-3.5-turbo) was used to complete typical lexicographic tasks, such as headword expansion, phrase and form finding, and creation of definitions and examples. The results showed that the output of this LLM is not up to the standard of human editorial work, requiring significant oversight because of errors and “hallucinations” (the tendency of LLMs to invent facts). In addition, the externalities of LLM use, including concerns about environmental impact and replication of bias, add to the overall cost.

        Speaker: Erin McKean
    • General Assembly Choe Yeong Hall

      Choe Yeong Hall

    • Keynote Speech 3 Grand Ballroom A

      Grand Ballroom A

      Convener: Lan Li
      • 12
        Research into dictionary use in an era of e-lexicography

        This paper aims to provide an in-depth exploration of research on dictionary use in the context of foreign language learning, particularly in light of the emergence of e-lexicography. It begins with a concise historical overview of dictionary user studies, tracing the evolution of research interests and highlighting the increasing impact of electronic and online dictionaries on language learners. The paper then presents the findings of a questionnaire administered to Japanese university students, which reveals significant shifts in their dictionary lookup behaviour. These changes reflect the growing prevalence of online dictionaries and translator tools, raising important considerations regarding their positive and negative influences on language proficiency development. The implications of relying on these digital resources as opposed to traditional dictionaries are examined, shedding light on the potential benefits and drawbacks of this shift. Furthermore, the paper identifies and summarizes a comprehensive list of desiderata for future studies in the field of dictionary use. These desiderata encompass various aspects, including user characteristics, inventories of dictionary information, exploration of communicative language activities, examination of the impact on second language acquisition, and comparisons between different dictionary tools and resources. By addressing these desiderata and conducting further research, the paper concludes that a deeper understanding of dictionary use and its relationship to language learning can be achieved. This knowledge will inform the development of effective pedagogical approaches and help educators make informed decisions regarding the integration of emerging technologies in foreign language teaching.

        Speaker: Yukio Tono
    • 10:00 AM
      Coffee break Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Yonsei University

    • Session 1: Semantic Representation in Lexicography Grand Ballroom A

      Grand Ballroom A

      Convener: Vincent Ooi
      • 13
        Varieties of English and their inclusivity in the Naver English Dictionary

        While mainstream English dictionaries often borrow from one another for common definitions and features, they must also strive to differentiate themselves for competitive reasons. One such distinctive effort is the Naver English Dictionary, whose ongoing development coincides with the unstoppable trend towards digitalisation in terms of appification in smartphones, other electronic devices and online presence. This paper highlights the inclusivity of lexical items that index some well-known varieties of English in this dictionary, and evaluates the ongoing efforts by Naver to align with the ‘expansion period’ of lexicography in Korea and globally. First, the paper highlights and examines the inherent structural features of the Naver English Dictionary and their implications. Second, the paper applies Ooi’s (2010) model for ten lexical entries that test the breadth and coverage of a dictionary. Next, we extend this framework for the Korean context, by testing the Naver Dictionary’s inclusion of twenty-six recent (translingual) Korean words that have made it to the Oxford English Dictionary. Beyond these terms, we also touch on lexical priming with respect to the inclusion of ‘Konglish.’ Finally, we draw on Ooi (2018b) on twenty lexical entries for world Englishes lexicography. Empirical sources of evidence for triangulation include the NOW and GloWbE corpora.

        Speaker: Vincent Ooi
      • 14
        Thesauri and ontologies: What is their relationship?

        Both thesauri and ontologies belong to Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) aiming to represent concept relations within a specific domain. Thesauri have emerged within the domain of lexicography, while ontologies originate from philosophy. Thesauri usually represent concepts of general language, while ontologies exist to represent the relations of terms within a specialized domain. Even though they have been extensively examined, separately or in combination, there is still some obscurity as far as their notions and their relationships are concerned. Depending on the purpose of the study and the different perspectives, thesauri and ontologies have been regarded as diverse, complementary, or even overlapping concepts. Based on their similarities they can be regarded as siblings, or even twins. Their differences however in origin, purpose and scope may lead to the conclusion that they may be just “step relatives”. In order to define their type and degree of relationship, this paper aims to clarify the concepts of thesaurus and ontology as well as their similarities and differences. In this respect, this paper examines a part of lexicography that almost overlaps with terminology and clarifies two concepts that are commonly studied and compared without always being quite clear, at least in theoretical terms.

        Speaker: Maria Koliopoulou
    • Session 2: Bilingual and Multilingual Lexicography Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Convener: Shigeru Yamada
      • 15
        Identifying uncommon usages in common words with the same Chinese characters: A quantitative analysis on entities of Trilateral Common Vocabulary Dictionary

        The languages of China, Japan, and Korea have created a significant number of lexicons derived from similar Chinese origins because of the Sinosphere's long-lasting influence. A considerable part of them exhibits semantic similarities as the characters comprise them often originate from common sources. Despite the fact that these cross-lingual near-synonyms overlap a substantial amount in terms of dictionary definitions, it's conceivable that their usage in the different linguistic systems will vary considerably. Therefore, for the sake of better elucidation on the variations in their context-dependent usages of them, this paper conducts a quantitative comparative analysis based on more than 300 common Chinese-character entities from the Trilateral Common Vocabulary Dictionary and thousands of related concordances from Aihub's CJK parallel corpora using AI language models targeting on Dependency Parsing & Semantic Textual Similarity tasks. Interestingly, the findings demonstrate that many of these homogenous Chinese terms exhibit syntactic and semantic uncommon usages depending on respective linguistic contexts, reflecting the ongoing expansion and diversification of Chinese-character vocabularies across disparate language systems. Consequently, for better comprehension and a wider audience of the dictionary, this paper suggests incorporating these uncommon usages into the existing definitions of commonly used Chinese-character words.

        Speaker: Li Fei
      • 16
        Ideal Japanese-English dictionaries in the digital era

        Japanese-English dictionaries (JEDs) are intended to help Japanese to produce texts in English. Those dictionaries have been developing with a number of innovative features to help the users with their productive activities. Currently, however, JEDs are put under tremendous pressure from digital translation tools and apps. In view of this, JEDs have to distinguish themselves from those digital competitors. For this purpose, JEDs should dramatically shift their emphasis from reference to the assistance in language production and learning. There is a limit to knowledge that human beings can retain in memory and draw on immediately. With this in mind, headwords, translational equivalents, and illustrative examples should be selected and provided. Basically, headwords should be selectively chosen, including superordinates which cover important concepts. On the other hand, relaxed approaches can be taken to include non-basic expressions (e.g., buzzwords and jargons) if they are judged to serve the productive needs of Japanese students of English. In rendering equivalents, in addition to Japanese-to-English lexical matchings, consideration should be given to the provision of items and patterns with wide applications (e.g., “phrasal constraints” [Nattinger & DeCarrico 1992: 41-42]). English equivalents and examples should be controlled both lexically and grammatically. Ideally, examples should be chosen or designed as models or bases to be memorized by the students for production, as those in A Grammar of English Words (Palmer, 1938).

        Speaker: Shigeru Yamada
    • Workshop: 5th Globalex Workshop on Lexicography and Neology Part 1 IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      Conveners: Annette Klosa-Kückelhaus , Ilan Kennerman
      • 17
        Neologisms created through blending – from a lexicographical perspective
        Speaker: Yongwei Gao
      • 18
        Words in the waiting room of the dictionary
        Speaker: Judit Freixa Aymerich
      • 19
        Korean neologisms of 2017-2021: Correlation between borrowing, semantic characteristics, and lexicographic representation
        Speakers: Hae-Yun Jung (Kyungpook National University), Soojin Lee
    • 12:00 PM
      Lunch break
    • Poster Session Muak Rotary Club Hall

      Muak Rotary Club Hall

    • Workshop: 5th Globalex Workshop on Lexicography and Neology Part 1 IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      Conveners: Annette Klosa-Kückelhaus , Ilan Kennerman
      • 20
        Invited talk: Unregistered words in everyday language and a proposal for their optimal lexicographic microstructure
        Speakers: Kilim Nam, Yinxia Huang
      • 21
        Unregistered words: German Corona neologisms, their detection and lexicographic description
        Speaker: Annette Klosa-Kückelhaus
      • 23
        Neologisms as a data service
        Speaker: Miloš Jakubíček
    • 3:30 PM
      Coffee break
    • Excursions

      Tour 1: Hiking in Ansan Mountain
      Tour 2: Changdeokgung Palace & Ikseon-dong
      Tour 3: The National Hangeul Museum

    • Session 1: Dialectal Representation in Lexicography Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Convener: Jesus Federico Hernandez
      • 24
        At the interface between "the Good Book" and "the wordbook": Bible translations and lexicography

        The Bible is by far the most translated work of literature with translations encompassing more than 700 languages in the year 2020. Most translations were made over the past two hundred or so years, when missionary work resulted in Bible translations into numerous languages outside the Western cultural sphere, notably in Africa and Asia, leaving their mark also on lexicography. Parallel to or as a corollary of Bible translations, dictionaries, mostly bilingual ones, were compiled.
        These dictionaries essentially built on the need for target language equivalents to theological concepts in the Bible source languages (for the Old Testament: Hebrew, for the New Testament: Greek). Ensuring terminological consistency in translations was an overriding concern. Sometimes also target language neologisms were needed for items of reality not found in the target language external world.
        This paper views the nexus between Bible translations and lexicography through the prism of the southern African language called Ndonga. Also it explores the nexus between Bible translations and dictionary editing in the Ndonga language, drawing additional conclusions on a more general lexicographic basis that may shed further light on the interface beteen translation and lexicography, including from an Asian perspective.

        Speaker: Mats-Peter Sundström
      • 25
        Jejueo talking dictionary: A collaborative online database for language revitalization

        the Jejueo Talking Dictionary, a free online
        multimedia database and Android application.
        Jejueo is a critically endangered language spoken
        by 5,000-10,000 people throughout Jeju Province,
        South Korea, and in a diasporic enclave in Osaka,
        Japan. Under contact pressure from Standard
        Korean, Jejueo is undergoing rapid attrition
        (Kang, 2005; Kang, 2007), and most fluent
        speakers of Jejueo are now over 75 years old
        (UNESCO, 2010). In recent years, talking
        dictionaries have proven to be valuable tools in
        language revitalization programs worldwide
        (Nathan, 2006; Harrison and Anderson, 2006).
        As a collaborative team including linguists from
        Jeju National University, members of the Jejueo
        Preservation Society, Jeju community members
        and outside linguists, we are currently building a
        web-based talking dictionary of Jejueo along with
        an application for Android devices. The Jejueo
        talking dictionary will compile existing annotated
        video corpora of Jejueo songs, conversational
        genres and regional mythology into a multimedia
        database, to be supplemented by original
        annotated video recordings of natural language
        use. Lexemes and definitions will be
        accompanied by audio files of their pronunciation
        and occasional photos, in the case of items native
        to Jeju. The audio and video data will be tagged
        in Jejueo, Korean, Japanese and English so that
        users may search or browse the dictionary in any
        of these languages. Videos showing a range of
        discourse types will have interlinear glossing, so
        that users may search Jejueo particles as well as
        lexemes and grammatical topics, and find the
        tools to construct original Jejeuo speech. The
        Jejueo talking dictionary will serve as a tool for
        language acquisition in Jejueo immersion
        programs in schools, as well as a repository for
        oral history and ceremonial speech. The aim of
        this paper is to discuss how the interests of
        diverse user communities may be addressed by
        the methodology, organization and scope of
        talking dictionaries.

        Speaker: Moira Saltzman
    • Workshop: LexTeach Part 1 IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      • 26
        How to integrate the use of English learner’s dictionaries in class to teach vocabulary
        Speaker: Amy Chi
    • 10:00 AM
      Coffee break
    • Session 1: Dictionary-making Issues and Methods Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Convener: Samantha Jade Sadural
      • 27
        Lexicographic treatments of Bangla adjectival affixes

        In this article, an attempt will be made to organise the overall macrostructure of Bangla adjectives by incorporating the most recognised two Bangla dictionaries with the available Bangla monolingual corpus. Our assumption is that there is a link between the degree of lexicalisation and the type of entry will be confirmed if we look at the dictionary entries for Bangla adjectival terms that contain a variety of affixes. In fact, the lexical richness of Bangla language can correlate with grammar-based lemmatisers to address challenges produced by morphological complexity.

        Speakers: Syed Shahrier Rahman , Mithun Banerjee
      • 28
        The treatment of selected function words in monolingual Filipino dictionaries

        Monolingual dictionaries are usually forgiven for not providing more grammatical information because their main target users are native speakers or highly-advanced learners, who likely do not have much need to look up the meaning and usage of, say, high-frequency function words. Dictionaries, however, also serve as encyclopaedias of linguistic information which reflect what we know and understand of the language (Hoekstra, 2010). The objective of this paper is to investigate the treatment of selected function words in MFDs at the microstructure level. We particularly focus on function words that are usually labelled as pantukoy or pang-ukol in dictionaries and Filipino grammar books. In the linguistics literature, these words have been variably called articles, determiners, prepositions, nominal markers, among others. From the wide range of terms used to label these function words, we can immediately surmise that there are some incongruence in the analyses of these words. In comparing the information provided by the MFDs, this study aims to discover the extent to which they match analyses in the linguistics literature and whether or not we would find a consensus among lexicographers where none has so far been reached among syntacticians. Recommendations on the treatment of these words will also be provided.

        Speaker: Elsie Marie T. Or
      • 29
        Challenges of compiling a monolingual dictionary in a multilingual setting: Reports from a Filipino dictionary project

        This paper is an attempt to contribute to the discussion of problems and resolutions to lexicographic projects which focuses on a non-prototypical case for lexicographic work. Using the learnings gained from the UP Monolinggwal na Diksyunaryo sa Filipino (UP Monolingual Dictionary in Filipino) project as the basis, three key concerns are identified and set as the framework for ongoing and future research areas. First, the macro-area of compiling a monolingual vocabulary from a naturally multilingual speech community and its effect on corpus-building; second, the micro-area of designing entry articles for an agglutinative language when models are based on Western and mostly non-agglutinative ones; and three, the meso-area of using the dictionary as an indicator of standardization for a language that is arguably, still approaching this phase. The paper outlines the problems faced and categorized into these three areas, discusses how these were addressed, and considers plans for development in moving forward. It is seen that while the language and its use is the apparent object of examination and focus in dictionary-compiling, the social structures and social setting play an equally important role in this situation.

        Speaker: Ma Althea Enriquez
      • 30
        Building Project Marayum ( Lexicographic issues and solutions

        Project Marayum (, a University of the Philippines Diliman-led and Department of Science and Technology-funded project, is designed to be a collaboratively built, mobile phone-based, online dictionary creation platform for Philippine languages. A work in progress, Marayum aims to provide bilingual seed dictionaries of Philippine-type languages despite lacking a substantial corpus collection, which was the primary source of errors in current Filipino monolingual dictionaries (Lee, 2018).

        This paper will focus on the significant linguistic-related issues and decisions made while creating Marayum, which covers various lexicographical choices. These decisions affected the macrostructure and microstructure of Marayum and set the appropriate methodology needed to present the dictionary entries in different Philippine languages based on the word class, word formation, derivations, and their polysemous characteristics.

        The Marayum website was launched on 16 March 2021 and currently has five dictionaries with English as its L2: Asi (bno), Hiligaynon (hil), Cebuano (ceb), Kinaray-a (krj), and Bikol-Boie'nen (blk). Forty-three dictionaries are currently being collated, some of which are: Akeanon (akl), Bikol-Buhi’non (ubl), Bikol-Central (bcl), Bikol (bik), Gaddang (gad), Itawis (itv), Ivatan (ivv), Kapampangan (pam), Masbatenyo (msb), and Ilocano (ilo). These dictionaries are being managed by their communities and assigned linguists.

        Speaker: Samantha Jade Sadural
    • Session 2: Lexicology and Lexicography Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Convener: Besim Kabashi
      • 31
        A study on lexicon information and learner acceptance of loanwords

        Although loanwords do not take up a large proportion in the Korean vocabulary system, the actual usage frequency of loanwords is increasing day by day with the influx of foreign cultures. Loanwords are not foreign words and must abide by the language norms of Korean when they are used. Therefore, loanwords are also an important learning object for foreigners in the process of learning Korean. The Basic Korean Dictionary contains 1,569 loanwords, which can be considered as basic loanwords compared to 23,918 loanwords in the Standard Korean Dictionary. This article will examine the dictionary information of these basic loanwords and their influence on Korean learners. The dictionary information is mainly analyzed from three aspects: pronunciation, parts of speech and meaning. The acceptance of foreign learners is examined through dictionary information comprehension and user evaluations of college students studying Korean in China. The purpose of this paper is to find out the advantages and disadvantages of the way of compiling loanwords in existing dictionaries, and try to find out what can be improved and supplemented, so as to better serve Korean learners. At the same time, hybrid words such as “loanwords + native words” are also included in the research scope, so as to highlight the difficulties of dictionary users and the shortage of dictionary information.

        Speaker: Sun-Woo Chang
      • 32
        Making known the what and the why: On foregrounding cultural information in bilingual lexicography

        Language is deeply intertwined with culture, and understanding the cultural nuances embedded in words and phrases is crucial for effective communication. Bilingual dictionaries play a vital role in bridging the linguistic and cultural gaps between languages. The article explores the inclusion and representation of cultural information in bilingual lexicography, focusing specifically on Chinese-English dictionary compilation. It emphasizes the need to not only provide the meaning and usage of words and phrases (the what), but also to convey the cultural nuances and background behind them (the why). Additionally, the representation of cultural information in bilingual dictionaries requires the exploration of various methods and techniques. Within this context, the article delves into the concepts of defamiliarization and foregrounding as means to emphasize cultural aspects through explanatory notes, cultural annotations, examples from literature or popular culture, and other pertinent resources.

        Speaker: Cuilian Zhao
      • 33
        The lexis of the Albanian language used in social media: An investigation

        The language usage in the so-called social media shows, in contrast to conventional language usage, additional phenomena. Some frequent of them, besides the fact that standard spelling is not always taken into account, are, above all, contractions, emoticons, and creative spellings.
        In the Albanian language used in the social media such word forms, e. g. the abbreviation flm (short form for <ju/të/…> falemnderit, engl. thank you), e. g. the contraction ti (engl. you) instead of t’i (engl. <subjunctive>’<accusative or dative object clitic>), and e. g. the creative spelling e ver8 instead of e vertetë (engl. <it is> true), i. e. 8 stands for tetë (engl. eight), can no longer be omitted in the communication texts. Some of these, which are very common, e. g. flm, can be included in dictionaries, as is the case in extensions and updates of dictionary described in [Author: Title. Published in a journal, somewhere. 201y].
        To investigate the topic on an empirical basis, we built four different corpora based on data collected from 2011 to 2021. The data are divided into standard language and nonstandard language. This way makes it easier to investigate the differences between the two forms of language use. Likewise, these aspects can be studied well in a ten-year interval.
        Besides the phenomena mentioned above, the different aspects of the language, such as dialect traces of the writers, as well as their spelling or their typing errors are also examined. These linguistic phenomena were examined on large amounts of data from social networks, e. g. Twitter, i. e. corpus-based.

        Speaker: Besim Kabashi
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch break Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Baekyang Nuri (The Commons) Level B1

      Yonsei University

    • Session 1: Phraseology and Lexicography Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Convener: Ai Inoue
      • 34
        (Meta)phraseography and phraseomatics: DiCoP, a computerized resource of phraseological units

        This article presents the Dictionary and Corpus of Phraseology (DiCoP) project, whose main objective is the development of a multilingual electronic dictionary of phraseology (currently French–Chinese and Chinese–French) relating to phraseological units. The current study focuses on Chinese to French, and among the different types of fixed expressions, more precisely on French idiomatic expressions and their Chinese correspondent, the chéngyǔ, both characterized by a high degree of fixedness.
        This project comprises several innovative aspects: 1) (meta)phraseography, or digital phraseography; 2) phraseodidactics with DiCoP-Learning; and 3) phraseotraductology and corpus with DiCoP-Text.

        Speaker: Lian Chen
      • 35
        Separate descriptions or pulled-together descriptions? From a phraseological perspective

        This study proposes which separate descriptions or pulled-together descriptions, of semantically similar constructions, are better for English–Japanese dictionary learners (EJDLs.).
        Corpora have made it possible to describe the detailed information of phraseological units in EJDLs under the entry of the main component. This means that each phraseological unit is described separately in EJDLs, but not as a cross-reference, although it is semantically similar to a phraseological unit. This study aims to show the pulled-together description of a newly observed construction with a causative use [make O to do], [have O do], [let O do], and [get O to do] whose semantic interpretations are given priority over grammatical correctness based on the data obtained from corpora and the corpus pattern analysis research method.
        Numerous studies have regarded the construction [make O to do] (e.g., * There are several points which made me to think so.) as unacceptable. However, corpora data show that the construction [make O to do] is observed in both spoken and written English (e.g., He finally chose the third option because the first option would make him to lose his pension right. (COCA, 2006, ACAD)).
        Research has demonstrated that the newly observed construction [make O to do] implies a weaker causative than the original construction and that it is formed by an analogy of the construction [get O to do]. Also, the other constructions—[have O to do], [let O to do], and [get O do]—are observed in the corpora; they are semantically different from the original constructions. When the original constructions change, the compelling forces that they have become weakened. These findings demonstrate that the pulled-together descriptions of newly observed constructions are user-friendly, especially for beginner-level English–Japanese learners.

        Speaker: Ai Inoue
    • Session 2: Terminology and Specialised Dictionaries Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Convener: Yongwei Gao
      • 36
        What academic words refer to in specialized texts and in specialized dictionaries?

        The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, we investigate whether academic words tend to show specialized meanings (e.g., resident as a physician being trained) in domain-specific corpora. Second, we offer suggestions for technical dictionaries based on our corpus investigation.
        We focused on the medical domain, and developed a computational approach to automatically identify words which are more likely to show technical senses. Inspired by Yarowsky’s (1995) “one sense per collocation” principle, our approach automatically collected and compared words’ collocating words in medical vs. general-purpose corpora. We tested our approach with 1,140 nouns in the Academic Vocabulary List, with it suggesting 129 candidate words. Evaluated by experts, however, only 7 were judged to show medical senses. While identifying few technical senses, our approach collected numerous specialized usages; over 60% of the candidates and their collocates were found to form multi-word medical terms.
        Furthermore, the candidates were checked against the Merriam-Webster’s Medical English Dictionary. Consistent with corpus findings, those which are listed as entries mostly have academic rather than medical meanings. Additionally, half of the medical terms identified here are not included in the dictionary. Accordingly, we suggest technical dictionaries include more collocations containing academic words, rather than the words only.

        Speaker: Ping-Yu Huang
      • 37
        How many terminologies should be recorded in dictionaries? A case study of the OED

        The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) has been widely recognized as one of the most trustworthy references in the world. Its quarterly updates have helped it keep pace with the development of the vocabulary. Rather extensive as its coverage of the English vocabulary is, the OED may have one obvious failing that is related to the recording of terminologies of various kinds. Through close examination of its online version, we have found the following terminology-related deficiencies in the OED: overall inadequacy in the total number of scientific terminology, imbalanced inclusion in many fields of study, a lack of labelling for scientific terminology, the absence of many initialisms and acronyms denoting scientific terminology, etc. This paper attempts to research into the coverage of terminology in the OED on the basis of a thorough comparison with online dictionaries of smaller sizes such as Collins English Dictionary and Merriam-Webster Dictionary and several neologisms dictionaries as well. While analyzing the above-mentioned deficiencies in detail, the paper will also put forward suggestions for a better treatment of terminology in the dictionary.

        Speaker: Yongwei Gao
      • 38
        Avoiding “A certain kind of plant”: A case study in multidisciplinary approaches to lexicography

        Lexicography in the South Asian context often involves working with communities who live in areas with high degrees of endemism in both flora and fauna. According to the Botanical Survey of India, there are four biodiversity hotspots (viz. Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Sundaland, and Western Ghats and Sri Lanka) in South Asia. It is therefore inevitable that there will be lexical items collected for which description in a lexicography project would be challenging, but for which differentiation is important. For example, while the markhor (a large wild goat with corkscrew-like horns) and domestic goat are both goats in a broad sense, their significance to and interaction with humans vary greatly, and to describe both as ‘goat’ would be imprecise. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and solutions in addressing certain blind-spots in a lexicographic study on Mankiyali with special reference to flora and fauna. Mankiyali is a highly endangered Indo-Aryan language spoken in a remote area of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province; documentation research on the language began only in 2018. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach to Mankiyali lexicography using botanical surveys, terrestrial and avian fauna surveys, and ethnomedical studies for producing a lexical database which is comprehensive and useful from an academic, scientific, and community-based perspective. Initial linguistic surveys of South Asia undertaken during the Linguistic Survey of India (1894-1928) typically include a significant number of lexical items referring to local flora and fauna. These lexical items are presented in a very broad sense and without specific identification, which unfortunately limits its usefulness for multiple applications. An integrative and holistic approach to lexicography making use of modern technology-based tools must therefore be included so as to avoid the necessity of, for example, describing flora as, “a certain kind of plant”.

        Speaker: Eric Englert
    • 3:00 PM
      Coffee break
    • Workshop: LexTeach Part 2 IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      IBK Industrial Bank of Korea Hall

      • 39
        Using dictionaries to understand family names, origins, and identity
        Speaker: Jesus Federico Hernandez
      • 40
        A critique of new words and dated words in dictionaries
        Speaker: Lan Li
    • Session 1: Lexicography and Language Technology Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Lah Jeh Kun Hall

      Convener: Miloš Jakubíček
      • 41
        Automatic drafting and post-editing of a Ukrainian dictionary

        In this paper we describe data, tools and methodology used in the context of a lexicographic project consisting of building a large corpus-based Ukrainian dictionary from the scratch.

        Speaker: Miloš Jakubíček
      • 42
        Lexicography lost and found: From dictionaries to AI

        This paper is about the evolution of contemporary lexicography, its status, and prospects. The advent of English pedagogical lexicography, with major milestones in the 1930s (monolingual learner’s dictionaries) and 1980s (bilingual learner’s and corpus-based dictionaries), has been a source of inspiration for modern lexicography, incorporating its breakthroughs and innovations in many languages worldwide over the last generation. The great wave of change in society and technology toward the end of the twentieth century then gave way to new questions and doubts about the role, necessity, usefulness, and adaptation of dictionaries, first in view of the passage from print to digital and then in relation to natural language processing, facing competitive applications for spellchecking, audio pronunciation, machine translation, e-learning, information retrieval, and more. However, in this century, the gloomy forecasts about 'the future of the dictionary' have been replaced by a tour de force of the increasingly abundant availability of ever more dictionaries for ever more users. During the last decade, interoperability with big, linked, and open data, multilingual knowledge management, machine learning, language models and the like, are shaping new opportunities for lexicography within human-machine interaction and the AI era, such as offering expert parallel corpora for training translation models, refining globalization and localization processes, enhancing domain classification for languages for special purposes, leveraging low-resourced languages, empowering users, or assisting with named entity recognition, sentiment analysis, etc. We will analyze the highlights of this ongoing evolution and describe the main prospects for lexicography in the foreseeable future.

        Speaker: Ilan Kernerman
    • Session 2: Terminology and Specialised Dictionaries Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Kwak Joung-Hwan Challenge Hall

      Convener: Jinung Kim
      • 43
        Learner’s LSP dictionary for medical coordinators: A lexicographical concept

        Multilingual LSP (Language for Specific Purposes) dictionaries are especially useful for learners, as they serve not only as the source of information required to build field-specific vocabulary and perform adequate translation from one language to another, but also as a potential source of professional knowledge. It is hard to underestimate the importance of LSP dictionaries for medical translation and interpretation—key services that help healthcare professionals to establish mutual confidence with patients who speak another language and deliver high-quality care. The significance is even higher in case of medical tourism, which is commonly understood as the overseas travel for the purpose of treatment and care. The Asia-Pacific region currently dominates the market and South Korea attracts special attention, due to availability of advanced medical technologies, wide range of provided services, and highly experienced healthcare professionals. During the screening (or medical examination), the patient is usually assisted by a coordinator—the member of the hospital staff who has adequate command of the patient’s native language. In our research we discuss the empirical approach to the development of the multilingual learner’s LSP dictionary that can be used in training of medical coordinators, thematic domains, and conceptualise dictionary macro- and microstructure.

        Speaker: Elizaveta Krivetskaya
      • 44
        A study on practice of North and South Korean infectious disease glossary compilation

        This paper aims to inform how the first North-South comparative glossary targeting the field of infectious diseases was compiled. This glossary encompasses terms used in situations that diagnose, treat, and prevent infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms. The compilation process consisted of three main stages. Terms were collected and refined in Step 1, and an integrated database was built in Step 2. Based on this, in Step 3, a glossary in the form of a paper book was published, which systematically selected and contained important information. In the paper, the overall study was first introduced, and each step was explained by dividing the sections of what work was performed. <North and South Korean infectious disease glossary> contains 1,500 of the 2,845 cases contained in the integrated database as headlines. Through the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of infectious diseases is being spotlighted again. This glossary can be said to be highly timely because it even includes the latest infectious disease terms. In addition, it is valuable because it is possible to create another glossary of various forms in the future using the database built in the research process.

        Speakers: Juwon Park, Sukjeong Kim, Wonyoung Doh
    • Keynote 4 Choe Yeong Hall

      Choe Yeong Hall

      Convener: Vincent Ooi
      • 45
        Keynote 4. Jonghwan Kim: The Development of Naver Dictionary’s User Participation: A case study of Open Dictionary PRO and Accentia

        This study aims to (1) describe the development process of user participation in South Korea by analyzing the user participation status of the NAVER dictionary of NAVER, a representative search portal site in South Korea, and (2) identify the characteristics of user participation.
        This study analyzed NAVER Dictionary's representative crowdsourced dictionary platform, Open Dictionary PRO, and Accentia, a pronunciation production platform. To present the respective development process of each platform, the paper (1) introduced the history of Open Dictionary PRO and Accentia, (2) investigated their characteristics to identify differences from other platforms, and (3) analyzed accumulated content since their launch.
        This study found that Open Dictionary PRO has the characteristics of (1) being an integrated dictionary platform that provides both dictionary compilation and content consumption, (2) being a demotic platform that provides a structure that makes it easy for general users to participate in, (3) being an open platform that can compile dictionaries on various topics, and (4) being able to compile dictionaries in various formats as the dictionary structure is easy to change.
        In addition, Accentia, a pronunciation production platform, presents a model that (1) is a full-fledged platform for the general public to produce pronunciations, (2) collects various accents for each language, and (3) connects production and consumption by linking the platform with dictionaries.

        Speaker: Jonghwan Kim
    • 6:30 PM
      Conference dinner Choe Yeong Hall

      Choe Yeong Hall